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Frequency Response

Techniques

Frequency Response

Frequency response methods, developed by Nyquist and Bode in the

1930s, are older than the root locus method, which was discovered by

Evans in 1948 (Nyquist,1932; Bode, 1945). The older method, is not as

intuitive as the root locus. However, frequency response yields a new

vantage point from which to view feedback control systems. This

:technique has distinct advantages in the following situations

.When modeling transfer functions from physical data. 1

When designing lead compensators to meet a steady-state error. 2

requirement and a transient response requirement

When finding the stability of nonlinear systems. 3

In settling ambiguities when sketching a root locus. 4

a. system;

b. transfer function;

c. input and output waveforms

The steady-state output sinusoid is

M o( ) o( ) M i ( )M ( )[ i ( ) ( )]

is called Phase Freq Response

The system function is given by

M o( )

M ( )

M i ( )

( ) o( ) i ( )

As B

C (s ) 2

G (s )

2

(s )

As B

=

G (s )

(s j )(s j )

K1

K2

=

s j s j

M i M G j ( i G ) M i M G j ( i G )

e

e

K1

K2

2

2

C ss (s )

s j s j

s j

s j

where M i R ( j ) A 2 B 2

and M

G ( j )

two of them are (1) as a function of frequency, with

separate magnitude and phase plots; and (2) as a polar

plot, where the phasor length is the magnitude and the

phasor angle is the phase. When plotting separate

magnitude and phase plots, the magnitude curve can be

plotted in decibels (dB) vs. log, where dB = 20 log M.

The phase curve is plotted as phase

. angle vs. log

separate magnitude and phase

Problem: Find the analytical expression for the magnitude and phase

frequency response for a system G(s)=1/(s+2). Plot magnitude, phase and

polar diagrams.

Solution: substituting s=jw, we get

G ( j ) 1 / ( j 2) (2 j )

( 2 4)

The magnitude frequency response is

G ( j ) M ( ) 1 / ( 2 4)

( ) tan 1 ( / 2)

The magnitude diagram is

20 log M ( ) 20 log(1 / 2 4) vs. log

( ) tan 1 ( / 2) vs. log

The polar plot is a plot of

M ( ) ( ) 1 / ( 2 4) tan 1 ( / 2)

Consider the transfer function

G ( s)

K ( s z1 )( s z 2 )....( s z k )

s m ( s p1 )( s p 2 )....( s p n )

G ( j )

K ( s z1 ) ( s z 2 ) .... ( s z k )

s ( s p1 ) ( s p 2 ) .... ( s p n )

m

s j

20 log G ( j ) 20 log K 20 log ( s z1 ) 20 log ( s z 2 )

..... 20 log s m 20 log ( s p1 ) ..... s j

only of straight lines, then combine these approximations to yield

the total response in dB

called asymptotes.

We have low frequency asymptote

and high frequency asymptote

a is called the break frequency

Bode plots for G(s) = (s + a):

G ( j ) ( j a ) a j 1

zero G ( j ) a

The magnitude response in dB is

20log M=20log a where M G ( j )

and is constant and plotted in Figure

(a) from =0.01a to a.

At high frequencies where a

j

G ( j ) a( ) a( )90 o 90 o

a

20 log

a

Table 10.1

Asymptotic and actual normalized and scaled frequency response data for (s + a)

Figure 10.7

Asymptotic and actual normalized and scaled magnitude response of (s + a)

Figure 10.8

Asymptotic and actual normalized and scaled phase response of (s + a)

a. G(s) = s;

b. G(s) = 1/s;

c. G(s) = (s+a);

d. G(s) = 1/(s+a);

Problem : Draw the Bode plot for the system shown in figure where

K (s 3)

G (s )

s (s 1)(s 2)

Solution: The Bode plot is the sum of the Bode plot for each first

order term. To make it easeier we rewrite G(s) as

3

s

K ( 1)

3

G (s ) 2

s

s (s 1)( 1)

2

a. components;

b. composite

Table 10.2

Bode magnitude plot: slop contribution from each pole and zero in Example

a. components;

b. composite

Table 10.3

Bode phase plot: slop contribution from each pole and zero in Example 10.2

2

s

s

2

2

2

G ( s) s 2 n s n n 2 2

1

n

n

2

2

o

At low frequencies G(s) becomes G ( s ) n n 0

At high frequencies

G (s) s 2

2

2

o

G

(

j

180

And

The log-magnitude is

The low freq. asymptote and the high freq. asymptote are equal when

Thus n is called the break frequency for second order polynomial.

a. magnitude;

b. phase

1

Bode plots for G ( s )

2

2

s

similarly

n

n

to those for

can be derived

G ( s ) s 2 2 n s n2

decreases at a rate of -40dB/decade.

The phase plot is 0 at low frequencies. At 0.1 n begins a

until

10 n

decrease of -90o/decade and continues

, where it

levels off at -180o .

Problem : Draw the Bode plot for the system shown in figure where

G (s )

(s 3)

[(s 2)(s 2 2s 25)]

Solution: The Bode plot is the sum of the Bode plot for each first

order term, and the 2nd order term. Convert G(s) to show the

normalized components that have unity low-frequency gain. The

2nd order term is normalized by factoring out

forming s 2

2

n

s

s

( 1)

( 1)

3

3

3

3

Thus, G (s )

(2)(25) s

50 s

s2

2

s2

2

( 1)( s 1)

( 1)( s 1)

2

25 25

2

25 25

s 1

a. components;

b. composite

The low

frequency value

for G(s), found

by letting s = 0, is

3/50 or -24.44dB

The Bode

magnitude plot

starts out at this

value and

continues until

the first break

freq at 2 rad/s.

Table 10.6

Magnitude diagram slopes for Example

a. components;

b. composite

Table 10.7

Phase diagram slopes for Example

The Nyquist criterion relates the stability of a closed-loop system to the

open-loop frequency response and open-loop pole location.

N

N

Letting G (s ) G

H (s ) H

DG

DH

NGN H

We find G (s )H (s )

DG D H

N N

D D NGN H

1 G (s )H (s ) 1 G H G H

DG D H

DG D H

N G DH

G (s )

T (s )

1 G (s )H (s ) DG D H N G N H

We conclude that

The poles of 1+G(s)H(s) are the same as the

poles of G(s)H(s), the open-loop system

The zeroes of 1+G(s)H(s) are the same as the

poles of T(s), the closed-loop system

If we take a complex number on the s-plane and substitute it into a function,

F(s), another complex number results. This process is called Mapping.

Consider the collection of points, called a contour (shown in Figure as

Contour A). Contour A can be mapped through F(s) Into Contour B

by substituting each point in contour A into Function F(s) and

plotting the resulting complex numbers.

If contour A maps clockwise then contour B maps clockwise if:

F(s) has just Zeros or Poles that are not encircled by the contour

The contour B maps counterclockwise if:

F(s) has just Poles that are encircled by contour A

If the Pole or Zero of F(s) is enclosed by contour A,

then the mapping encircles the origin

is a contour which contains the imaginary axis and encloses the right halfplace. The Nyquist contour is clockwise.

A Clockwise Curve

Nyquist Contour

a. vectors on contour at low frequency;

b. vectors on contour around infinity;

c. Nyquist diagram

The Nyquist Diagram is plotted

by substituting the points of the

contour shown in Figure (a) into

G(s) = 500/[(s+1)(s+3)(s+10)]

Its performing complex

arithmetic using vectors of G(s)

drawn to points of the contour

as shown in (a) and (b)

The resultant vector, R, found at

any point is the product of zero

vectors divided by product of

pole vectors as in (c)

a. vectors on contour at low frequency;

b. vectors on contour around infinity;

c. Nyquist diagram

Evaluating G(s) at specified

points we get

At point A G (s ) 50 / 30o

At point C G (s ) 0 270o

At point D G (s ) 0270o

finite goes from 50/3 to 0 and the

angle goes from 0 to -270o

From C to D the magnitude is 0

while there is an angle change of

540o so goes from -270o to 270o

The mapping can be explained analytically by Substituting s= j and evaluating G(j) at

specified points

500

G ( j )

( s 1)( s 3)( s 10)

s j

500

G ( j ) 500

(14 2 30) 2 (43 3 ) 2

At 0 freq G(j)=500/30= 50/3. Thus Nyquist diagram starts at 50/3 at an angle 0.

As increases, the real part remains positive while imaginary part remains negative.

At = 30/14, the real part becomes negative. At =43 the Nyquist diagram crosses

the negative real axis, the value at the crossing is -0.874. Continuing toward = ,

the real part is negative and imaginary is positive. At = , G(j)500j/3 or

approximately 0 at 90o

a. poles on contour;

b. detour right;

c. detour left

Problem: Sketch the Nyquist diagram of unity feedback system

where G(s)= (s+2)/ S2

Solution: The system two poles at origin are on the contour and

must be by-passed as in (a).

At point A G (s ) 180o

At point B G (s ) 0 90o

At point C G (s ) 00o

At point D G (s ) 090o

Mapping DE is mirror of AB

At point E G (s ) 180o

At point F G (s ) 0o

At point A G (s ) 180o

b. Nyquist diagram for Example 10.5

a. contour does not enclose closed-loop poles;

b. contour does enclose closed-loop poles

If a contour A, that

encircles the entire right

half-plane is mapped

through G(s)H(s), then the

number of closed loop

poles, Z, in the right halfplane equals the number of

open-loop poles, P, that are

in the right half-plane

minus the number of

counterclockwise

revolutions, N, around -1 of

the mapping; that is Z=P-N.

a. system;

b. contour;

We

could setdiagram

K=1 and position the

c. Nyquist

Thus the critical point appears to

move closer to the origin as K

increases.

For this example P=2, and the

critical point must be encircled by

the Nyquist diagram to yield N=2

and a stable system.

The system is marginally stable if

the Nyquist diagram intersect the

real axis at -1 ( frequency at this

point is the frequency at which the

root locus crosses the jw axis.)

Problem: for the unity feedback system with G(s) = K/[s(s+3)(s+5)], find the

range for stability, instability and the value of gain for marginal stability.

Solution: first set K=1 and sketch Nyquist diagram for the system. Using the

contour shown in (a), for all points on the imaginary axis,

K

8 2 j (15 3 )

G ( j )H ( j )

s (s 3)(s 5) K 1

64 4 2 (15 2 ) 2

At =0, G ( j )H ( j ) -0.0356 - j

intersects the negative real axis by

setting the imaginary part equal to zero.

We

find

15

.

and real part =

At =Finally

, G ( j )H ( j ) 0 270o

-0.0083.

s j

b. Nyquist diagram

must equal zero. So the system is stable

if the critical point lies outside the

contour. K can be increased by 1/0.0083

Hence

stability

K<120.5.

for marginal

=120.5for

before

the diagram

encircles

-1. stability K=120.5 At this gain the frequency is 15

This system is stable for the range of loop gain, K, that ensures that the

open-loop magnitude is less than unity at that frequency where the phase

angle is 180o.

a. Contour and root locus of system that is stable for small gain and unstable for large gain;

b. Nyquist diagram

This system is stable for the range of loop gain, K, that ensures that the

open-loop magnitude is greater than unity at that frequency where the phase

angle is 180o.

a. Contour and root locus of system that is unstable for small gain and stable for large gain;

b. Nyquist diagram

Problem: for the unity feedback system with G(s) = K/[(s2+2s+2)(s+2)], find the range for

stability, instability and the value of gain for marginal stability.

Solution: since P=0, we want no encirclements of -1 for stability. Hence. A gain less than

unity at +/- 180 is required. first set K=1 and sketch the portion of Nyquist diagram along

the positive imaginary axis as shown in (a). We find the intersection with the negative real

1

4(1 2 ) j (6 2 )

axis as G ( j )H ( j )

(s 2 23 2)(s 2) s j

16(1 2 ) 2 2 (6 2 ) 2

Setting the imaginary part = zero, we find 6 and substituting yields real part (1/20) =

1 / 20180o

stable if the magnitude of the

frequency response is less than

unity at 180o. Hence, the

system is stable foe K<20,

unstable for K>20, and

marginally stable for K=20

(frequency at marginal

stability is 6 )

Gain margin, GM, The gain margin is the change in open-loop gain, expressed in

decibels (dB), required at 180o of phase shift to make the closed-loop system unstable.

Phase margin, M , The phase margin is the change in open-loop phase shift required

at unity gain to make the closed-loop system unstable.

GM = 20log a.

Problem: find the gain and phase margins of system of previous example. If K = 6.

Solution: to find the gain margin, first find the frequency where the Nyquist diagram

crosses the negative real axis. Finding G ( j ) H ( j )

6

6[4(1 2 ) j (6 2 )]

G ( j )H ( j ) 2

(s 23 2)(s 2) s j 16(1 2 ) 2 2 (6 2 ) 2

The Nyquist diagram crosses the real axis at frequency of 6 . The real part is

calculated to be -0.3. Thus, the gain can be increased by (1/0.3) =3.33 before the real part

becomes -1. Hence the gain margin is GM = 20log 3.33 = 10.45 dB.

To find the phase margin, find the frequency for which the magnitude is unity. We need to

solve the equation to find frequency = 1.253 rad/s. at this freq. the phase angle is -112.3o.

The difference between this angle and -180o is 67.7o, which is the phase margin.

Problem: use Bode plots to determine range of K within which the unity feed-back

system with G(s) = K/[(s+2)(s+4)(s+5)] is stable.

Solution: The closed loop system will be stable if the frequency response has a gain

less than unity when the phase is +/-180o

We sketch the Bode plots as shown. The lowfrequency gain of G(s)H(s) is found by

setting s=0. So the Bode magnitude plot starts

at K/40. For convenience let K = 40 so that

the log-magnitude plot starts at 0 dB.

At frequency 7rad/s, when phase is 180o, the

magnitude is -20dB. So an increase in gain of

+20dB is possible before system becomes

unstable.

Since the gain plot was scaled for a gain of

40, +20dB(a gain of 10) represents the

required increase in gain above 40. Hence,

the gain for instability is 40X10 = 400.

0<K<400 for stability. Compare to actual

results 378 at freq. 6.16 rad/s.

Problem: If K =200 in the system of previous example, find the gain and

phase margins

Solution: The Bode plot in Figure

is scaled to a gain of 40. If K=200,

the magnitude plot would be

20log5 = 13.98 dB higher.

At phase = 180, on the magnitude

plot the gain is -20. So the gain

margin = -20 +13.98 = 6.02 dB

To find phase margin, we look

on the magnitude plot for freq

where the gain is 0 dB (-13.98

dB normalized) occurs at 5.5

rad/s freq. At this freq the angle

is 165 so the phase margin is

-165-(-180) = 15 degrees

n2

Using the open loop transfer function G ( s )

s( s 2 n )

2

C

(

s

)

n

And closed-loop transfer function T ( s)

2

R ( s ) s 2 n s n2

We evaluate the magnitude of the closedloop freq response as

M T ( j )

n2

( n2 2 ) 2 4 2 n2 2

shown in the Figure

to the damping ratio we find

MP

1

2 1 2

At a frequency, P of

P n 1 2 2

Since damping ratio is related to

percent overshoot we can plot

MP vs. percent overshoot

We can relate the speed of the time response ( as measured in settling time,

rising time, and peak time) and the bandwidth , BW of the Frequency

response.

The Bandwidth is defined as the frequency at which the magnitude response

curve

is 3 dB down

its value

at zero

frequency.

The Bandwidth

forfrom

a two-pole

system

can

be found by finding that freq for

M=1/2 (that is -3dB)

BW n (1 2 2 ) 4 4 4 2 2

Ts

n

And

BW

BW

TP 1 2

TP 1 2

4

Ts

We get,

(1 2 2 ) 4 4 4 2 2

(1 2 2 ) 4 4 4 2 2

a. settling time; b. peak time; c. rise time

constant M circles and are

the locus of the closed-loop

magnitude frequency

response for unity feed back

systems.

If the polar frequency

response of an open-loop

function, G(s), is plotted and

superimposed on top of the

constant M circles, the

closed-loop magnitude

frequency response is

determined by each

intersection of this polar plot

with the M circles.

Figure 10.42

Constant M circles

N circles

If the polar frequency response of

an open-loop function, G(s), is

plotted and superimposed on top

of the constant N circles, the

closed-loop phase response is

determined by each intersection

of this polar plot with the N

circles.

Figure 10.43

Constant N circles

frequency response of the

unity feedback system using

G(s)=50/[s(s+3)(s+6)]

Solution

Evaluate the open-loop

frequency function

50

G ( j )

9 2 j (18 3 )

The Polar plot of the open-loop

freq response ( Nyquist diagram)

is shown superimposed over the

M and N circles in the Figure

frequency response can now

be obtained by finding the

intersection of each point of

the Nyquist plot with the M

circles.

While the closed-loop phase

response can be obtained by

finding the intersection of

each point of the Nyquist plot

with the N circles.

The result is shown in the

Figure.

Nichols Charts

Nichols Charts displays the constant M and N circles in dB, so that changes

in gain are as simple to handle as in the Bode plots.

The chart is a plot of the open-loop magnitude in dB vs. open-loop phase

angle in degrees.

Nichols Charts

G(s) = K/[s(s + 1)(s + 2)] superimposed.

Values for K = 1 and K = 3.16 are shown.

M 90 tan 1

tan 1

2 2 1 4 4

2

2

2 2 1 4 4

For un-normalized un-scaled Bode plot, the low frequency magnitude

is 20 log KP

For type 1 system (the initial slope is -20dB/decade)

For un-normalized un-scaled Bode plot, the intersection of the initial

-20dB/decade slope with the frequency axis is KV

For type 2 system (the initial slope is -40dB/decade)

For un-normalized un-scaled Bode plot, the intersection of the initial

-40dB/decade slope with the frequency axis is Ka

Example: For Bode Log plots shown, find

system type, and static error constants

Solution:

In (a) system is type 0, since the initial slope

is 0. And 20 log KP =25, or KP = 17.78

In (b) system is type 1, since the initial slope

is -20dB/decade. And the value of Kv is the

value of frequency that the initial slope

intersects at the zero dB crossing of the

frequency axis. Hence Kv = 0.55

In (c) system is type 2, since the initial slope

is -40dB/decade. And the value of Ka is the

value of frequency that the initial slope

intersects at the zero dB crossing of the

frequency axis. Hence Ka = 32 = 9

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