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Feedback Controllers

Chapter 8

On-off Controllers

Simple

Cheap

Used In residential heating and domestic refrigerators

Limited use in process control due to continuous

cycling of controlled variable excessive wear

on control valve.

Examples

Batchprocesscontrol(PLC=programmablelogiccontroller)

Solenoidinhomeheatingunit

Sprinklersystems

Cruisecontrol?

On-Off Controllers

Chapter 8

Synonyms:

two-position or bang-bang controllers.

e = error =

set point measured variable

Chapter 8

= tolerance

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Proportional

Integral

Derivative

Proportional Control

Define an error signal, e, by e = Ysp Ym

where

Ysp = set point

Ym = measured value of the controlled variable

(or equivalent signal from transmitter)

e(t) = Ysp(t) - Ym (t)

Chapter 8

p = p - p

For proportional control: p(t) = p + K ce(t)

where,

p(t) = controller output

p = bias value (adjustable)

Kc = controller gain (dimensionless, adjustable)

Chapter 8

in Text

Standards (ISO/ISA)

3 15 psi

4 - 20 ma

0 10 VDC

Proportional Band, PB

100%

PB

Kc

Chapter 8

Kc can be made positive or negative

Recall for proportional FB control:

p(t) = p + K c e(t)

or

p( t ) p K c Ysp ( t ) Ym ( t )

output increases as input increases"

p(t)

Ym(t)

Reverse-Acting (Kc > 0)

output increases as input decreases"

Chapter 8

that KcKv > 0

1.) Air-to-open (fail close) valve ==> ?

2.) Air-to-close (fail open) valve ==> ?

Consequences of wrong controller action??

Chapter 8

Let p(t) p(t) - p

Then controller input/output relation can written as

p(t) K c e(t)

Take Laplace transform of each side,

P(s) K c E(s)

or

P(s)

Kc

E(s)

INTEGRAL CONTROL ACTION

Synonyms: "reset", "floating control"

t

1

p( t ) p e( t )dt

I 0

P(s) 1

E(s) Is

1

p( t ) p K c e( t ) e( t )dt

I 0

Chapter 8

most popular controller

(i.e., offset) Why??? e 0 p is changing with

time until e = 0, where p reaches steady state.

P(s)

1

Transfer function for PI control

K c 1

Chapter 8

E(s)

Is

Chapter 8

Derivative Control Action

Ideal derivative action

de

p( t ) p D

dt

Used to improve dynamic response of the

controlled variable

Derivative kick (use -dym/dt )

Use alone?

Chapter 8

Now we consider the combination of the proportional, integral,

and derivative control modes as a PID controller.

Chapter 8

Next, we consider the three most common forms.

Parallel Form of PID Control

The parallel form of the PID control algorithm (without a

derivative filter) is given by

1

p t p Kc e t

I

0 e t * dt *

de t

dt

(8-13)

P s

D s

(8-14)

Chapter 8

1

K c 1

E s

I s

P s

I s 1

D s 1

Kc

E s

I

D 1

(8-15)

In addition to the well-known series and parallel forms, the

expanded form of PID control in Eq. 8-16 is sometimes used:

t

de t

dt

Chapter 8

p t p K c e t K I e t * dt * K D

(8-16)

Elimination of Derivative and Proportional Kick

One disadvantage of the previous PID controllers is that a

sudden change in set point (and hence the error, e) will cause the

derivative term momentarily to become very large and thus

provide a derivative kick to the final control element.

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Automatic Mode

Controller output, p(t), depends on e(t), controller

constants, and type of controller used.

( PI vs. PID etc.)

Manual Mode

Controller output, p(t), is adjusted manually.

Manual Mode is very useful when unusual

conditions exist:

plant start-up

plant shut-down

emergencies

Percentage of controllers "on manual ??

(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)

Chapter 8

D

t n 1

pn p K c en ek en en 1

14I 2k 143 1 44 2D 4 43

I

where,

t = the sampling period (the time between

successive samples of the controlled variable)

p n = controller output at the nth sampling

instant, n=1,2,

e n = error at the nth sampling unit

velocity form - see Equation (8-19)

(pn)- incremental change

Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Consider response of a controlled system after a

sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in

disturbance variable); y > 0 is off-spec.

No control

(Kc=0)

Increasing KC

Chapter 8

Time

y

Increasing D

Time

Increasing I

y

Increasing KC

Chapter 8

Time

(b)

Time

(a)

Figure 8.14 Proportional-integral control: (a) effect of integral time, (b) effect of controller gain

integral action ~

Kc / I

Chapter 8

Commonly Used Controller Modes

1. Two Position:

Inexpensive.

Extremely simple.

2. Proportional:

Simple.

Inherently stable when properly tuned.

Easy to tune.

Experiences offset at steady state. (OK for level

control)

3. Proportional plus integral:

No offset.

Better dynamic response than reset alone.

Possibilities exist for instability due to lag

introduced.

Chapter 8

Stable.

Less offset than proportional alone (use of

higher gain possible).

Reduces lags, i.e., more rapid response.

5. Proportional plus integral plus derivative:

Most complex

Rapid response

No offset.

Best control if properly tuned.

Chapter 8

Control valves are air-to-open

Level transmitters are direct acting

Chapter 8

Question:

1. Type of controller action? Select Kc so that

Kc Kv K p 0

(a) air-to-open valve: sign of Kv?

(b) sign of process gain?

Chapter 8

Previous chapter

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