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Introduction to Industrial

Safety and Health Issues


Accident Undesired circumstances which
give rise to ill-health or injury, damage to
property, plant, products or the environment;
production losses or increased liabilities.
Incident Undesired circumstances and near
misses which could cause accidents.
Ill health Acute and chronic ill health
caused by physical, chemical or biological
agents as well as adverse effects on mental

Hazard The potential to cause harm. Harm
including ill health and injury, damage to
property, plant, products or the environment,
production losses or increased liabilities.
Risk- Means the likelihood that a specified
undesired event will occur due to the
realisation of a hazard by, or during work
activities or by the products and services
created by work activities.
Safety- The control of accidental loss.

OSH Concept
Hazard/ Danger
Observable or predicted
from knowledge

Not directly observable - probability
of harm to system elements being
realised from exposure to hazards
and danger.

Damage to system elements - long
or short term

Injuries, Ill Health and

Reasons for Preventing Accidents

Moral / Humane- No-one comes to work
to be injured or killed
Cost - Accidents cost organisations
Legislation - Organisations have a legal

Accidents at workplace in Malaysia


Statistics of workplace accident (States)


Recent Accident


Bright Sparkles Tragedy

7 May 1991
Bright Sparkles Sdn Bhd
Explosion of 200 tons of sulfur
Hiroshima Sg Buloh
The incident killed 22 people and
injured 103 others

Bright Sparkles contd

Flow Chart of Occupational Safety

and Health in Malaysia
Government of Malaysia
Ministry of Human Resources
Department of Occupational Safety and Health


Responsibility of DOSH
The standards on safety, health, and welfare had to be reviewed, drafted,
and finalised from time to time. This ensured that the prepared standards
were relevant to the safety and health conditions of the workplace.

a. Policy Study
Studies on existing OSH policies were conducted from time to time to assess
the extent to which these policies had achieved their original objectives.
Changes would be made, if necessary, to ensure that the goals and the
practice of self regulation among employers and employees were achieved.

b. Drafting Regulations, Guidelines, and Industrial Codes of Practice

The Department had and currently in the process of amending the new
industrial Regulations, Codes of Practice, and Guidelines. This was intended
to assist the industry in complying with and fulfilling its responsibilities as an
employer, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994.

Responsibility of DOSH contd

The Department carried out
enforcement activities aimed
at ensuring the safety, health,
and welfare of workers and
other persons from the hazards
of work activities, as required
under the following Acts:
Occupational Safety and
Health Act 1994 (Act 514)
Factories and Machinery Act
1967 (Act 139); and
Petroleum (Safety Measures)
Act 1984 (Act 302).

Enforcement activities
that were carried out by
DOSH include:
a. Approval and
b. Registration
c. Certification
d. Inspection
e. Investigation
f. Litigation

National Institute of Occupational Safety and
The responsibilities are as follows:
Provide training
Provide Examination
Information Services
Research and Development

Application of OSHA


Mining and Quarrying



Transport, Storage and



Hotels and Restaurants

Forestry and Fishing

Real Estate and

Business Service

Wholesale and Retail

Public Service and

Statutory Authorities

Scope of OSHA
Includes all working personnel except:
Armed Forces
Crew of Merchant Ships

Objectives of OSHA
To secure the safety, health and
welfare of persons at work against
risks to safety or health arising out of
the activities of persons at work
To protect persons at a place of work
other than persons at work against risk
to safety or health arising out of the
activities of persons at works