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1839: Photovoltaic effect was first recognized by French physicist

Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel.
1883: First solar cell was built by Charles Fritts, who coated the
semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the
junctions (1% efficient).
1946: Russell Ohl patented the modern solar cell
1954: Modern age of solar power technology arrives - Bell Laboratories,
experimenting with semiconductors, accidentally found that silicon doped
with certain impurities was very sensitive to light.
The solar cell or photovoltaic cell fulfills two fundamental functions:
Photogeneration of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in a lightabsorbing
material
Separation of the charge carriers to a conductive contact to transmit
electricity

First Generation
Single crystal silicon wafers (c-Si)
Second Generation
Amorphous silicon (a-Si)
Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)
Cadmium telluride (CdTe)
Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) alloy
Third Generation
Nanocrystal solar cells
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells
Polymer solar cells
Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)
Fourth Generation
Hybrid - inorganic crystals within a polymer matrix

Different types of solar cells and / or their semiconducting


materials can be classified by generations:
First generation solar cells are made of crystalline silicon, also
called, conventional, traditional, wafer-based solar cells and
include monocrystalline (mono-Si) and polycrystalline (multi-Si)
semiconducting materials.
Second generation solar cells or panels are based on thin-film
technology and are of commercially significant importance.
These include CdTe, CIGS and amorphous silicon.
Third generation solar cells are often labeled as emerging
technologies with little or no market significance and include a
large range of substances, mostly organic, often using organo
metallic compounds.

Forms of Solar Energy


Gathering
A single unit is
referred to as a
cell
A collection of
cells is a module
A collection of
modules is an
array
Note that while they may all be made up of the same type

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-atnasa/2002/solarcells/

of cell a module and an array will have different


efficiencies due to the empty spaces between each cell

Cell is the fundamental single unit in PV.


A module in a solar panel refers to Series and parallel
arrangement of solar cells.
Multiple modules for generation of large Power is called
Array

Lets check How (Fundamentals)


If a PV cell produces 0.5V, then four PV cells connected in
series will produce
2.0V
The total power across four PV cells of 0.5V connected in
series when current in the cell = 1A is
2.000 W
If a PV cell delivers a current of 0.6A and there one three PV
cells in parallel there then the current flowing through the load
is
1.8A

In a solar panel, the metal used is ______.


Answer: 3

The Raw Materials Required for


Solar Panels

There are several varieties of cells today that can be used to absorb sunlight and
convert those photons into electrical energy. These include:
CIS (Copper Indium Diselenide) Cells
CdTe cells (Cadmium Telluride) Cells
Organic Cells
Multi-junction Cells
Although multi-junction cells have the highest efficiency among solar cells
achieved in a laboratory setting (demonstrated by the following graph), Silicon
Cells (monocrystaline, polycrystaline and amorphous) due to their low cost and
decent efficiency are the most feasible for wide production and will thus be the
main interest of our study.

In a solar panel, the metal used is


Silver
.

Various type of PV cell

Types and Conversion Efficiency of Solar


Cell
Conversion Efficiency of
Module

Crystalline
Silicon
Semiconductor
Non-crystalline

Solar
Cell

Compound
Semiconductor

Organic
Semiconductor

Single crystal

10 - 17%

Poly crystalline

10 - 13%

Amorphous

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

18 - 30%

Dye-sensitized Type

7 - 8%

Organic Thin Layer Type

2 - 3%

Electric Energy Output


Conversion Efficiency =
Energy of Insolation on cell
8

7 - 10%

x 100%

Typical Efficiency, Voltage and


current in a Solar Cell
Typically the commercial efficiency of the solar cell is
about 15%
The output power of the solar cell is of the order 1.0 W.
The output voltage from solar cell is in the range of
0.5 V to 1.0 V. (on an average : 0.5 V).
The current density of a photo voltaic cell ranges from
40 50 mA/cm2

Calculation of O/P Power


Full sunlight is falling on a 15% efficiency solar cell of
area 2 m2 at an angle of incidence of 60 degrees to the
normal to the cell. What is the output power of the cell?
150 W.

Lets calculate.

Fill Factor
.A photocell has a short circuit current of 25 mA, an open
circuit voltage of 0.6 V and a maximum power output of
12 mW. What is its fill factor?
80%
Lets calculate.

PV Cells Technologies
Characterization criterion:
Thickness:
Conventional thick cells (200 - 500 m)
Thin film (1 10 m). Tend to be less costly than conventional
(think) cells but they also tend to be less reliable and efficient.
Crystalline configuration:
Single crystal
Multicrystalline: cell formed by 1mm to 10cm single crystal areas.
Polycrystalline: cell formed by 1m to 1mm single crystal areas.
Microcrystalline: cell formed by areas of less than 1m across.
Amorphous: No single crystal areas.
p and n region materials:
Same material: homojunction (Si)
Different material: heterojunction (CdS and CuInSe2)

PV Technology Classification
Silicon Crystalline Technology
Mono Crystalline PV Cells
Cells
Multi Crystalline PV Cells

Thin Film Technology


Amorphous Silicon PV

Poly Crystalline PV Cells


( Non-Silicon based)

5. Types of Solar
cell on the types of crystal used, solar cells can be
Based
classified as,
1. Mono crystalline silicon cells
2. Polycrystalline silicon cells
3. Amorphous silicon cells

1. The Monocrystalline silicon cell is produced from


pure silicon (single crystal). Since the Monocrystalline
silicon is pure and defect free,
the efficiency of cell
will
be
higher.
2. In polycrystalline solar cell, liquid silicon is used as raw
material and polycrystalline silicon was obtained followed
by solidification process. The materials contain various
crystalline sizes. Hence, the efficiency of this type of cell
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2
14
is less than Monocrystalline cell.

3. Amorphous silicon was obtained by depositing


silicon film
on the substrate like glass plate.
The layer thickness amounts to less than 1m the
thickness of a human hair for comparison is 50-100
m.
The efficiency of amorphous
cells is much lower
than that
of the other two cell types.
As a result, they are used mainly in low power
equipment,
such as watches and pocket
calculators, or as facade
elements.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

15

Silicon Crystalline Technology

Currently makes up 86% of PV market


Very stable with module efficiencies 10-16%

Mono crystalline PV Cells

Multi Crystalline PV Cells

Made

using saw-cut from single


cylindrical crystal of Si

Caste

Operating

Cell

efficiency up to 15%

from ingot of melted


and recrystallised silicon
efficiency ~12%

Accounts

for 90% of
crystalline Si market

CdTe/CdS Solar Cell

CdTe : Bandgap 1.5 eV; Absorption coefficient


10 times that of Si
CdS : Bandgap 2.5 eV; Acts as window layer
Limitation :
Poor contact quality with p-CdTe (~ 0.1 cm2)

Thin Film Technology

Silicon deposited in a continuous on a base material such as glass,


metal or polymers
Thin-film crystalline solar cell consists of layers about 10m thick
compared with 200-300m layers for crystalline silicon cells

PROS
Low cost substrate and
fabrication process
CONS
Not very stable

Amorphous Silicon PV Cells

The most advanced of thin film technologies

Operating efficiency ~6%

Makes up about 13% of PV market

PROS
Mature manufacturing
technologies available
CONS
Initial 20-40% loss in
efficiency

Poly Crystalline PV Cells


Non Silicon Based Technology
Copper Indium Diselinide
CIS with band gap 1eV, high
absorption coefficient 105cm-1

High efficiency levels

PROS
18% laboratory efficiency
>11% module efficiency
CONS
Immature manufacturing
process
Slow vacuum process

Poly Crystalline PV Cells


Non Silicon Based Technology
Cadmium Telluride ( CdTe)
Unlike most other II/IV material
CdTe exhibits direct band gap of
1.4eV and high absorption
coefficient

PROS
16% laboratory efficiency
6-9% module efficiency
CONS
Immature manufacturing process

The solar cell is the basic building block of solar photovoltaics.


When charged by the sun, this basic unit generates a dc photovoltage
of 0.5 to 1.0V and, in short circuit, a photocurrent of some tens of
mA/cm2.
Since the voltage is too small for most applications, to produce a
useful voltage, the cells are connected in series into modules,
typically containing about 28 to 36 cells in series to generate a dc
output of 12 V.
To avoid the complete loss of power when one of the cells in the
series fails, a blocking diode is integrated into the module.
Modules within arrays are similarly protected to form a photovoltaic
generator that is designed to generate power at a certain current and a
voltage which is a multiple of 12 V.

Materials for Solar cell


Solar cells are composed of various semiconducting
materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Crystalline silicon
Cadmium telluride
Copper indium diselenide
Gallium arsenide
Indium phosphide
Zinc sulphide

Note: Semiconductors are materials, which become


electrically conductive when supplied with light or
heat, but which operate as insulators at low
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2
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temperatures

6. Principle, construction and working of


Solar cell The solar cells are based on the
Principle:
principles of photovoltaic effect.The photovoltaic
effect is the photogeneration of charge carriers
in a light absorbing materials as a result of
absorption of light radiation.
Construction
Solar cell (crystalline Silicon) consists of a n-type
semiconductor (emitter) layer and p-type semiconductor
layer (base). The two layers are sandwiched and
hence
there is formation of p-n junction.
The surface is coated with anti-refection coating to
avoid
the
loss of incident light energy due to
reflection.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

24

The mechanism of electricity production- Different


stages
Conduction band
density

High

Valence band
density

Low

The above diagram shows the formation of p-n junction


in a solar cell. The valence band is a low-density band
and conduction band is high-density band.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

25

Stage-1
When light falls on the semiconductor surface, the
electron from valence band promoted to conduction
band.
Therefore, the hole
(vacancy
position
left by the electron
in the valence band)
is generates. Hence,
there is a formation
of electron-hole pair
on the sides of p-n
junction.

Conduction band
density

High

Valence band
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

Low density
26

Stage-2
In the stage 2, the electron and holes are diffuse
across the
p-n junction and there is a formation of
electron-hole pair.
Conduction band
density

High

junction

Valence band

Low density

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

27

Stage-3
In the stage 3, As electron continuous to diffuse, the
negative charge build on emitter side and positive
charge build on the base side.
Conduction band
density

High

junction

Valence band

Low density

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

28

Stage-4
When the PN junction is connected with external circuit,
the current flows.

Conduction band
density

High

junction

Valence band

Low density

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

Powe
r

29


Over 95% of all the solar cells produced worldwide
are
composed of the semiconductor material Silicon
(Si). As the
second most abundant element in earth`s
crust, silicon has the advantage, of being available in
sufficient quantities.

To produce a solar cell, the semiconductor is


contaminated
or "doped".

"Doping" is the intentional introduction of chemical


elements into the semiconductor.

By doing this, depending upon the type of dopant,


one can
obtain a surplus of either positive charge
carriers (called
p-conducting semiconductor layer) or
negative
charge
carriers
(called
n-conducting
30
semiconductor layer). PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

If two differently contaminated semiconductor


layers are combined, then a so-called p-n-junction
results on the boundary of the layers.
p-n junction
layer
n-type semiconductor
p- type semiconductor

By doping trivalent element, we get p-type


semiconductor. (with excess amount of hole)
By doping pentavalent element, we get n-type
semiconductor ( with excess amount of electron)
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

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2. Photovoltaic effect
Definition:
The
generation
of
voltage
across
the PN junction in
a semiconductor
due
to
the
absorption
of
light radiation is
called
photovoltaic
effect.
The
Devices based on
this
effect
is

Light
energ
y

n-type semiconductor
p- type semiconductor

Electrica
l Power

p-n junction

PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

32

3. electron-hole
formation

Photovoltaic energy conversion relies on the


number
a flux of

of photons strikes on the earth. (photon is


light particles)

On a clear day, about 4.4 x 1017 photons strike a


square
centimeter of the Earth's surface every
second.
Only some of these photons - those with energy
in excess of the band gap - can be converted into
electricity by the solar cell.
When such photon enters the semiconductor, it
may be absorbed and promote an electron from the
valence band to the conduction band.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

33

Conduction band
electron

Photons

hole
Valence band

Therefore, a vacant is created in the valence band and


it is called hole.
Now, the electron in the conduction band and hole in
valence band combine together and forms electronhole pairs.
PH 0101 Unit-5 Lecture-2

34

Mechanism of
generation

Voltage and Current of PV cell ( IP


Voltage
Voltageon
onnormal
normaloperation
operationpoint
point
V Curve
)
0.5V (in case of Silicon PV)
A

(A)

Short Circuit

Current(I)

High insolation

0.5V (in case of Silicon PV)


Current
Currentdepend
dependon
on
--Intensity
Intensityofofinsolation
insolation
--Size
Sizeofofcell
cell

Normal operation point


(Maximum Power point)
P

Low insolation

IxV=W

(V)

Voltage(V)
35

about 0.5V (Silicon)

Open Circuit

Fill Factor
The ratio of Maximum obtainable power to the product of
the open ckt voltage and s/c current.
FF = (Imp x Vmp) / (IL x Voc).
Cells with high Fill Factor have a low equivalent series
resistance and a high equivalent shunt resistance, so less of
the current produced by the cell is dissipated in internal
losses.

-Polycrystalline cells are


slightly less efficient
thanmonocrystallinesolar
cells, but are cheaper to
manufacture in wafer form.
-The diagram below from
How Stuff Works illustrates
the order of the raw
ingredients needed to
create a generic
polycrystalline silicon cell.
They include:
A.A layer of glass for
protection
B.Antireflective coating
C.Contact grid
D.Highly purified N-Type
Silicon
E.P-Type Silicon

Whats in a Polycrystalline Si
Solar Cell?

Emerging Technologies
Discovering new realms of Photovoltaic Technologies

Electrochemical solar cells


have their active component in
liquid phase

Dye sensitizers are used to


absorb light and create
electron-hole pairs in
nanocrystalline titanium
dioxide semiconductor layer

Cell efficiency ~ 7%

Electrochemical solar cells

Emerging Technologies
Ultra Thin Wafer Solar Cells
Thickness ~ 45m
Cell Efficiency as high as 20.3%

Anti- Reflection Coating


Low cost deposition techniques use a
metalorganic titanium or tantanum mixed
with suitable organic additives

Solar Cell
Properties
Open
circuit voltage (VOC)
Short circuit current (ISC)
Maximum power
Efficiency

Factors affecting Solar Cell


Performance
Light intensity (type of light)
Light wavelength (color of light)
Angle of incident light
Surface condition of solar cells (cleanness)
Temperature on solar cells

Peak Power Point (Maximum


Power)
A solar cell may operate over a wide range
of voltages (V) and currents (I). By
increasing the resistive load on an irradiated
cell continuously from zero (a short circuit)
to a very high value (an open circuit) one
can determine the maximum-power point,
the point that maximizes VI, that is, the
load for which the cell can deliver maximum
electrical power at that level of irradiation.
Dynamically adjust the load so the
maximum power is always transferred,
regardless of the variation in lighting.

The Band Gap


http://mousely.com/encyclopedia/Band_gap/

Energy of a photon

A property of the
atoms of the
semiconductor
This is the energy
gap between two
bands of energy
between tow
electron states in a
solid
Only photon energy
which matches the
band gap energy of
the material can
free an electron
from that state.

Solar Cell Efficiency


Considers how
much energy
available and
compares it to
how much
energy is used
productively

Solar cell efficiency ( )


depends on
- The total power light
power
density (JV) on the
cell
- The actual potential
difference of the system
- The actual current
density of the system
- The fill factor
constant which is the ratio

Conventional Silicon Solar cells


Single and Polycrystalline Silicon
Commercial Efficiency ~ 16 %
Laboratory ~ 26%
Thin Film Solar Cells
a Si , CdTe, CIGS and thin film crystalline Si
Commercial Efficiency ~ 10 %
Efficiency at Laboratory scale ~ 16 %

Three Generations of solar cell technology:


1.Single-crystal silicon based photovoltaic devices

Good efficiency
High Cost

Higher than traditionally-produced electricity

2.CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) polycrystalline semiconductor thin


films

Low Cost
Less Efficiency

3.Nanotechnology-enhanced solar cells

Low Cost
Medium Efficiency

Various type of PV cell


Roughly size of PV Power Station.
How much PV can we install in this conference room?

m22

11kw
kwPV
PVneed
need 10
10 m

Please
remember

20m(66feet)

(108 feet2)

Conference
Room
(We are now)

Our room has about 200 m2


(2,178 feet2)

We can install about


20 kW PV in this room
10m(33feet)
46

Parallel Connections
Loads/sources wired in parallel:
VOLTAGE REMAINS CONSTANT
CURRENTS ARE ADDITIVE
Two interconnection wires are used between two
components (positive to positive and negative to
negative)
Leave off of either terminal
Modules exiting to next
component can happen
at any parallel terminal