You are on page 1of 37

Action Plan

For Capacity Development Programe for the Teachers of


Vocational Training Institutions in Sri Lanka
Professor : Lee Il Kwon

University Overview

1. Cylinder head
2. Timing system
3. Crankshaft
4. Piston, piston ring, cylinder
5. Appendix-measure instruments
6. Symbol unit

1. Cylinder Head?
Summary of this Chapter

1.1 Measuring deformation of cylinder head


1. Purpose of Checking
a. To check the cylinder head deformation to prevent
the less compression pressure.
b. To check the leaking of the coolant or
the engine oil.
2. Checking method
a. Remove and clean the foreign matters attached at the
cylinder head bottom surface.
b. Measure at the 7 portions using a straight scale and
thickness gauge as below picture.
* Measure the clearance between cylinder head surface
and the straight scale, avoid the coolant passage and the
oil passage.

University Overview

1. Cylinder Head?
Summary of this Chapter

2. Checking the bending of the Camshaft


a. Place the camshaft on the V-shaped block on the flat
base.
b. After installing the dial gauge at the center journal of
the shaft, calibrate the zero setting.
c. Rotate the camshaft at one turn.
d. Read the dial gauge while the rotating of camshaft.
e. The amount of the bending shall be 1/2 of the
amplitude of the vibration.

University Overview

1. Cylinder Head?
Summary of this Chapter

3. Measuring the cam lift


a.Measure the height of the cam with a micrometer
b. Measure the diameter of the basic circle of cam with a
micrometer.
c. Cam Lift = Height of the Cam Diameter of basic circle

University Overview

2. Timing System?
Summary of this Chapter

1.1. Timing belt inspection


1.Check the belt for oil or dust deposits. Replace, if
necessary. Small deposits should be wiped away with a
dry cloth or paper. Do not clean with solvent.

University Overview

2. Timing System?
Summary of this Chapter

1.1. Timing belt inspection


2. When the engine is overhauled or belt tension
adjusted, check the belt carefully. If any of the following
flaws are evident, replace the belt.

University Overview

2. Timing System?
Summary of this Chapter

1.2. Cautions for Timing belt installation


1.Do not bend, twist or turn the timing belt inside out
when the timing belt is removed.
2. Do not allow the timing belt to come into contact with
oil, water and steam.
3. If the timing belt is reused, make an arrow indicating
the turning direction to make sure that the belt is
reinstalled in the same direction as before.

University Overview

2. Timing System?
Summary of this Chapter

4. Align the timing marks of the camshaft sprocket and


crankshaft sprocket with the No. 1 piston placed at top
dead center and its compression stroke.
5. Inspect the tensioner pulley and the idler pulley for
easy and smooth rotation, check for play or noise and the
grease leak from its bearing.
6. When the timing belt is installed on the camshaft
sprocket, make sure that the tension side is tightened by
pushing the timingbelt tensioner pulley toward the water
pump.
7. Turn the crankshaft one turn in the operating direction
(clockwise) and realign crankshaft sprocket timing mark.
Do not turn the crankshaft in a counterclockwise
direction. The crankshaft should be turned smoothly.

University Overview

3. Crankshaft
Summary of this Chapter

1.Cautions for Removing and tightening main


bering caps
a. Put the marks at main bearing caps in order of their
original position and direction for easier reassembly.
b. Remove the main bearing caps and remove crankshaft
bearing. Keep the bearings in order by cap number.
c. Install bearing caps and tighten the cap bolts to the
specified torque from the center.
d. The crankshaft bearing caps should be installed with
the arrow mark directed toward the crank pulley side of
engine. Cap numbers must be correct.

University Overview

3. Crankshaft
Summary of this Chapter

2. Measuring crankshaft oil clearance


1) Purpose
To make the proper oil clearance for reduction of bearing
wear, reduction of noise, built up a proper oil pressure.
2) Oil clearance
The minimum gap between the crank shaft journal and
the main bearing after the engine is manufactured or the
crank shaft journal is modified (under size bearing).
3) Measuring by Plastic Gauge
a.Clean the crankshaft and the bearing.
b. Cut the plastic gauge and lay down on the crankshaft
journal along to the axis direction not cover the oil hole of
the journal.
c. Tighten the cap with regulated torque. (Dont rotate the
shaft.)
d. Release the cap, and measure the width of the most
enlarged portion with a scale.

University Overview

3. Crankshaft
Summary of this Chapter

4) Measuring by Telescoping Gauge and the


Micrometer
a.After taken out the crankshaft, assemble and tighten
the cap with the specified torque.
b. Measure the inner diameters (crankshaft bore) of the
crankshaft cap at four points with a telescoping gauge
and the outside
diameter of the crankshaft journal with a micrometer at
four points.
c. Measure the thickness of crankshaft bearing.
d. Calculate the tolerance of them.
Oil clearance = Minimum Inner Diameter of cap
(telescoping gauge) Maximum Outside Diameter of the
Journal (Micrometer) Thickness of crankshaft bearing

University Overview

3. Crankshaft
Summary of this Chapter

3. Measuring thrust bearing clearance (End Play)


1) When the thrust bearing clearance is too big
a.Noise will be occurred
b. Abnormal wear on the cylinder, the piston and the
connecting rod
c. Off-side wear on the timing gear or clutch
d. Oil leak through the oil seal
2) When the thrust end play is too small
The face of the thrust bearing will be damaged by
insufficient lubrication

University Overview

3. Crankshaft
Summary of this Chapter

3) Measuring by Filler Gauge


a.Assemble the crank shaft to the cylinder block. (Tighten
all crankshaft bearing caps with specified torque)
b. Push the crankshaft to the thrust direction.
c. Measure the clearance between the thrust bearing and
crankshaft using a filler gauge.
4) Measuring by Dial Gauge
a.Assemble the crank shaft to the cylinder block with the
bearing.
b. Install the gauge body to the cylinder block with a
magnet and install the dial gauge at the front or rear
portion of the crankshaft.
c. After calibrating the zero setting, push the crankshaft
to the front or rear side. At this time, the indicating point
of the dial gauge needle is the clearance along to the
thrust direction.

University Overview

3. Crankshaft
Summary of this Chapter

4. Checking the bending of the Crankshaft


a. Setting the front and rear main journals (No. 1 and
No.5) on the V-shaped block and installing the dial gauge
at the middle journal (No.3) perpendicularly, measure the
bending amount with rotating the crank shaft.
b. The amount of the bending shall be 1/2 of the
amplitude of the vibration.

University Overview

4. Piston, Piston ring and cylinder


Summary of this Chapter

1. Measuring piston ring end gap


1) End gap
The gap compensating the changed length by heat
expansion
2) End gap is too big
The blow by gas will be increased, the compressing
pressure will be decreased, the consumption of the oil will
be increased, the engine power will be decreased etc.
3) End gap is too small
The piston ring will be adhered by the heat or the cylinder
wall shall be worn more, etc.

University Overview

4. Piston, Piston ring and cylinder


Summary of this Chapter

4) Measuring
a. Clean the cylinder wall.
b. Insert the piston ring in the cylinder.
c. Insert the piston in the cylinder with being upside
down and push the piston until the ring is reached to the
piston pin boss.
d. When the piston ring is inserted in the cylinder, the
end gap should not be located at the direction of the axis
or perpendicular direction of crankshaft.
e. When the piston ring is inserted in the cylinder, the
piston ring with facing the mark to the cylinder head.
f. Measure the piston ring end gap
5. Cautions for measuring the piston ring end gap
a.Be careful not to break the piston ring.
b. Measurement shall be performed at the least worn
portion.

University Overview

4. Piston, Piston ring and cylinder


Summary of this Chapter

2. Measuring piston ring side clearance


1) Clearance too big
The oil consumption will be increased, the carbon will be
deposited, or the compressed gas will be leaked.
2) Clearance too small
The piston may be deformed or the resistance against the
piston movement will be increased.
3) Measurment
a. Insert the filler gauge until it reaches at the ring
groove.
b. Check at least 3-4 points

University Overview

4. Piston, Piston ring and cylinder


Summary of this Chapter

3. Cautions for assembling the piston ring


a. Be careful not to exchange the ring position
(Distinguish the NO. 1 and 2 compression ring).
b. Be careful not to exchange the ring to upside down
(Mark should be faced with cylinder head side.
c. Do not set the end point at the axis direction or
perpendicular direction to the axis. Assemble with the
120~180 degree between the end gap of each ring.
Assemble with the expander or hand.

University Overview

4. Piston, Piston ring and cylinder


Summary of this Chapter

4. Measuring cylinder worn-out


1) Piston gap
As the gap between the cylinder wall and the piston, it is
the minimum gap between the cylinder and the piston
just after the engine is manufactured or the boring is
completed. Generally, it is 0.05% of the diameter of the
cylinder.
2) For the oversized piston
To prevent from decreasing the compressing pressure by
the ware of the cylinder wall after long life used and from
decreasing the power of the engine by the blow by gas.
Replace the old piston with the over size piston after
boring the cylinder wall
3) Tendency of Wear of the cylinder wall
The ware of the perpendicular portions of the crankshaft
and at the top dead center is biggest and the ware at the
bottom dead center position is also big.

University Overview

4. Piston, Piston ring and cylinder


Summary of this Chapter

When the movement direction is changed, the oil film


shall be easy to be broken. It comes from the breathing
operation of the piston ring and the lateral pressure about
the perpendicular direction to the crankshaft generated at
the explosion stroke

University Overview

4. Piston, Piston ring and cylinder


Summary of this Chapter

4) Cylinder wall too much worn out


The compressing pressure will be decreased, the fuel
consumption will be increased, the lubricant oil will be
more spent, the piston may be slapped, or the engine
power will be decreased.
5) Measuring by Cylinder gauge
1. Install the extension and washer to the gauge
2. Set zero
3. Insert the gauge in the cylinder
4. Read the minimum value of indicator while moving
the gauge 2~3 times.

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

1.Vernier caliper usage


1) The vernier caliper is used in length measurements to
gain higher precision readings compared to a simple ruler.
2) Use proper caliper for the purpose (kinds, range,
precision)
3) Do not give a shock (dorp, hit)

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

6) Confirm the 0 setting


7) Outer mesurment - Close to the object as possible

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

6) Inner measurment Deeply insert the jaw


- Read maximum value for inner diameter.
7) Depth measurment Close the depth gauge to the
surface properly

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

9) Read the scale


a. The left end of the vernier scale indicates the
measurement.
This position corresponds to a measurement of 9+xx

b. The 3rd line of the vernier scale lines up with the main
scale. This gives a reading of 0.06mm. (3 ->
3x0.02=0.06mm)
c. So, the value is 9.06mm

University Overview

5. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

2. Micrometer usage
1) A micrometer is a device for precisely measuring
small distances or thicknesses. The precision is often
achieved by a screw mechanism.
2) Use proper caliper for the purpose (kinds, range,
precision)

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

3) Do not give a shock (dorp, hit)


4) Cleaning the measuring surface.

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

5) Confirm the 0 setting


6) Use the ratchet stopper to set the object for
measuring.
7) Read the scale from the proper position

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

3. Dial gauge usage


1) Using dial gauge
a. Flatness

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

b. Right angled
c. Circularness

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

d. Bending
e. Thickness

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

f. Depth

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

2) Use proper caliper for the purpose (kinds, range,


precision)
3) Do not give a shock (dorp, hit)
4) Choose and use a lid for the proper purpose.

University Overview

4. Appendix
Summary of this Chapter

5) Install the dial gauge properly


6) Read the scale from the proper position.
Value = Short indicator + Long indicator

University Overview

University Overview

6. Unit simbol
Summary of this Chapter

Power of ten

Unit simbol

Prefix

Prefix symbol

1018

exa

1015

peta

1012

tera

109

giga

106

mega

103

kilo

102

hecto

10

deca

da

10-1

deci

10-2

centi

10-3

milli

10-6

micro

10-9

nano

10-12

pico

10-15

femto

10-18

atto

University Overview

Thank you