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Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing

J.-S. Roger Jang ( )

CS Dept., Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan

http://www.cs.nthu.edu.tw/~jang

jang@cs.nthu.edu.tw

Modified by Dan Simon

Fall 2010

Introduction

Basic definitions and terminology

Set-theoretic operations

MF formulation and parameterization

MFs of one and two dimensions

Derivatives of parameterized MFs

Fuzzy complement

Fuzzy intersection and union

Parameterized T-norm and T-conorm

So far as the laws of mathematics refer to

reality, they are not certain. And so far as they

are certain, they do not refer to reality.

- Albert Einstein

I am thinking of a random shape (circle, square, or

triangle). What is the probability that I am thinking

of a circle?

accurate?

It is probably a circle.

It is a fuzzy circle.

Two similar but different situations:

There is a 50% chance that there

is an apple in the fridge.

There is half of an apple in the

fridge.

Paradoxes

A heterological word is one that does not

describe itself. For example, long is

heterological, and monosyllabic is

heterological.

Is heterological heterological?

Paradoxes

Bertrand Russells barber paradox (1901)

The barber shaves a man if and only if he does

not shave himself. Who shaves the barber?

Use t(S) to denote the truth of S

S implies not-S, and not-S implies S

Therefore, t(S) = t(not-S) = 1 t(S)

t(S) = 0.5

Similarly, heterological is 50% heterological

Paradoxes

Sorites paradox:

Premise 1: One million grains of sand is a heap

Premise 2: A heap minus one grain is a heap

Heap-ness

100%

0

Number of grains

Fuzzy Sets

Sets with fuzzy boundaries

A = Set of tall people

Crisp set A

1.0

Fuzzy set A

1.0

.9

Membership

.5

510

Heights

function

510 62

Heights

Characteristics of MFs:

Subjective measures

Not probability functions

Membership

tall in Asia

.8

tall in the US

.5

tall in NBA

.1

510

Height

Fuzzy Sets

Formal definition:

A fuzzy set A in X is expressed as a set of ordered

pairs:

A {( x , A ( x ))| x X }

Fuzzy set

Membership

function

(MF)

Universe or

universe of discourse

membership function (MF).

Fuzzy set C = desirable city to live in

X = {SF, Boston, LA} (discrete and nonordered)

C = {(SF, 0.9), (Boston, 0.8), (LA, 0.6)}

X = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} (discrete universe)

A = {(0, .1), (1, .3), (2, .7), (3, 1), (4, .6), (5, .2), (6, .1)}

Fuzzy set B = about 50 years old

X = Set of positive real numbers (continuous)

B = {(x, B(x)) | x in X}

B(x)

1

x 50

1

10

Alternative Notation

A fuzzy set A can be alternatively denoted as

follows:

X is discrete

X is continuous

( xi ) / xi

xi X

A A( x) / x

X

membership grades; / stands for a marker and does

not imply division.

Fuzzy Partition

Fuzzy partitions formed by the linguistic values

young, middle aged, and old:

lingmf.m

More Definitions

Support

Convexity

Core

Fuzzy numbers

Normality

Bandwidth

Crossover points

Symmetricity

Fuzzy singleton

-cut, strong -cut

MF Terminology

These expressions are all defined in terms of x.

MF

1

.5

Core

Crossover points

- cut

Support

A fuzzy set A is convex if for any in [0, 1],

A (x1 (1 )x 2 ) m in(A (x1 ),A (x 2 ))

A is convex if all its -cuts are convex. (How

do you measure the convexity of an -cut?)

convexmf.m

Set-Theoretic Operations

Subset:

A B A B for all x

Complement:

A X A A (x ) 1 A (x )

Union:

C A B c (x ) m ax(A (x ),B (x )) A (x ) B (x )

Intersection:

C A B c (x ) m in(A (x ),B (x )) A (x ) B (x )

Set-Theoretic Operations

subset.m

fuzsetop.m

MF Formulation

Triangular MF:

x a c x

trimf ( x; a, b, c) max min

,

,

0

b a c b

Trapezoidal MF:

d x

xa

trapmf ( x; a, b, c, d ) max min

,1,

, 0

d c

ba

Gaussian MF:

gaussmf ( x; c, ) e

1 x c

gbellmf ( x; a, b, c)

1

xc

1

a

2b

MF Formulation

disp_mf.m

MF Formulation

Sigmoidal MF: sigmf ( x; a, c)

1

1 e a ( x c )

c = crossover point

a controls the

slope, and right/left

Extensions:

Abs. difference

of two sig. MF

(open right MFs)

Product

of two sig. MFs

disp_sig.m

MF Formulation

L-R

(left-right)

MF:

Example:

c x

,x c

a

x c

FR

,x c

b

FL

LR( x; c, a, b)

F L (x ) m ax(0 ,1 x 2 ) F R (x ) exp( x )

c=65

c=25

a=60

a=10

b=10

b=40

difflr.m

Cylindrical Extension

Base set A

Cylindrical Ext. of A

cyl_ext.m

2D MF Projection

Two-dimensional

Projection

Projection

MF

onto X

onto Y

(a) A Two-dimensional MF

1

0.5

0

1

0.5

0

R ( x, y )

project.m

1

0.5

0

A( x)

max R ( x , y )

y

B( y)

max R ( x , y )

x

2D Membership Functions

2dmf.m

General requirements of fuzzy complement:

Boundary: N(0)=1 and N(1) = 0

Monotonicity: N(a) > N(b) if a < b

Involution: N(N(a)) = a

Sugenos complement (Michio Sugeno):

N s (a )

1 a

1 sa

N w ( a ) (1 a w )1/ w

Fuzzy Complement

Sugenos complement:

1 a

N s (a )

1 sa

Yagers complement:

N w ( a ) (1 a w )1/ w

negation.m

Analogous to AND, and INTERSECTION

Basic requirements:

Monotonicity: T(a, b) T(c, d) if a c and b d

Commutativity: T(a, b) = T(b, a)

Associativity: T(a, T(b, c)) = T(T(a, b), c)

Minimum: Tm(a, b)

Algebraic product: Ta(a, b)

Bounded product: Tb(a, b)

Drastic product: Td(a, b)

T-norm Operator

Minimum:

Tm(a, b)

Algebraic

product:

Ta(a, b)

tnorm.m

Bounded

product:

Tb(a, b)

Drastic

product:

Td(a, b)

Analogous to OR, and UNION

Basic requirements:

Monotonicity: S(a, b) S(c, d) if a c and b d

Commutativity: S(a, b) = S(b, a)

Associativity: S(a, S(b, c)) = S(S(a, b), c)

Maximum: Sm(a, b)

Algebraic sum: Sa(a, b)

Bounded sum: Sb(a, b)

Drastic sum: Sd(a, b)

T-conorm or S-norm

Maximum:

Sm(a, b)

Algebraic

sum:

Sa(a, b)

Bounded

sum:

Sb(a, b)

tconorm.m

Drastic

sum:

Sd(a, b)

T-norms and T-conorms are duals which

support the generalization of DeMorgans law:

T(a, b) = N(S(N(a), N(b))): a and b = not(not a, or not b)

S(a, b) = N(T(N(a), N(b))): a or b = not(not a, and not b)

Tm(a, b)

Ta(a, b)

Tb(a, b)

Td(a, b)

Sm(a, b)

Sa(a, b)

Sb(a, b)

Sd(a, b)

Parameterized T-norms and dual T-conorms

have been proposed by several researchers:

Yager

Schweizer and Sklar

Dubois and Prade

Hamacher

Frank

Sugeno

Dombi

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