You are on page 1of 18

INDUSTRIAL FIRE HAZARD

AND RISK MANAGEMENT

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

YEAR

PLACE

ACCIDENT

1944

CLEVELAND

LNG TANK EXPLOSION

1948

GERMANY

CHEMICAL TANKER EXPLOSION

1974

FLIXBOROUGH-UK

CHEMICAL PLANT EXPLOSION

1982

INDIA

CHEMICAL PLANT FIRE & EXPLOSION

131 DEAD, 400


INJURED
207 DEAD 4000
INJURED
28 DEAD 89 INJURED 5
MILE PROPERTY
DAMAGED
10 MILLION USD LOSS

1982
1983

NAPTHA WAGON FIRE

90 DEAD 36 INJURED

1984

BIHAR, INDIA
SHAKURBASTI,
NEW DELHI
CUHATO, BRAZIL
SAN JUANICO
MEXICO
BHOPAL, INDIA

1984

INDIA

REFINERY FIRE

1985
1985

KARNATAKA, INDIA PETROL TANKER FIRE & EXPLOSION


WEST GERMANY
CHEMICAL PLANT EXPLOSION

1984
1984

DAMAGE / CASUALITIES

LPG BOTTLING PLANT FIRE & EXPLOSION 4 DEAD 25 INJURED


GASOLINE PIPE FIRE
500 DEAD
LPG DIST. PLANT FIRE &EXPLASION
MIC GAS LEAK

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

500 DEAD 25 INJURED


2500 DEAD 1 LAC
AFEECTED
10 MILLION USD LOSS
39 DEAD 20 INJURED
24 MILLIOM DOLLAR
LOSS

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Continued.

YEAR

PLACE

ACCIDENT

1985

WEST GERMANY

ETHYLENE PLANT FIRE

28 MILLIOM DOLLAR

1988

BPCL, MUMBAI

REFINERY FIRE

25 DEAD

1990

MGCC, INDIA

PETRO CHECHEMICAL PLANT FIRE

30 DEAD SEVERE DAMGE

1992

BANGALADESH

NH33 TANKER LEAKAGE & EXPLOSION

18 DEAD

1993

NFL, INDIA

AMMONIA LEAKAGE

6 DEAD

1993

NARORA, INDIA

ATOMIC POWER PLNAT FIRE

2 DEAD

1995

MUMBAI

SERIES OF BOMB BLAST

OVER 350 DEAD

1996

IOC, GUJARAT

REFINERY TANKAGE FIRE

SEVERE DAMAGE

1997

HPCL, VIZAG

LPG EXPLOSION

60 DEAD 100 CORE LOSS

1999

THAI REFINERY

REFINERY TANKAGE FIRE

SEVERE DAMAGE

2000

NEW DELHI

SHOP FIRE

12 DEAD

2000

JAIPUR

HUT FIRE

6 DEAD

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

DAMAGE / CASUALITIES

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Potential Hazards In Industry


Spheres and Bullets Hazards

Overpressurisation.
Insulation failure.
Failure of dish end joints.

Process Area Hazards

Failure of pump seal.

Failure of safety valve.

Failure of heater tubes.

Flange failure.

Violent reactions.

High pressure compressors.


RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Potential Hazards In Industry


Warehouses

Storage of Oxidising materials


Cylinder storage
Packing wood/materials stacking

Storage Tank Hazards

Floating roof tank seal.

Over flow.

Boilover.

Slopover.

Malfunctioning of breather valve.

Sinking of floating roof.


RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Potential Hazards In Industry


Electrical installations

Transformer cooling oil tank.


Short circuit.
Overloading.

Office buildings/canteens

LPG storage in pantry.


Unmanned areas.
High fire load (combustible material).
Air-condition ducts.

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Potential Hazards In Industry


Cryogenic Storage Hazards

Failure of refrigeration.
High rate of leakage.

Pipelines

Failure of flanges.

Failure of welded joints.

Mechanical damage to pipeline.

Static electricity.

Insulation failure.
RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Potential Hazards In Industry


Loading / Unloading Hazards

Failure of flange gasket.

Overfilling of tankers.

Excessive internal pressure.

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Consequences of Hazards

Vapour Cloud Explosion

BLEVE

Pool Fires

Jet Fires

Lagging Fires

Fire Balls

Seal Fires

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

Common Causes of Hazards in Industry

Electricity

Smoking

Incendiaries

Hot surfaces

Open flames

Cutting & welding sparks

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

10

Common Causes of Hazards in Industry

Friction
Spontaneous ignition
Chemical reactions
Pyrophoric/ oxidising materials
Static charge
Lightning

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

11

Hazard Identification

Engineering Checklists

Hazard Indicies

Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP)

Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA)

Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

Event Tree Analysis (ETA)

Cause-Consequences Analysis

Reliability Analysis

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

12

Risk Assessment
Primary Steps in Fire Risk assessment

Identifying the dominant event sequences that


could lead to significant consequential loss

Quantification of the risk

Development and evaluation of alternative fire


prevention and /or fire protection strategies to

reduce the risk


Quantified measurement of the change in fire
risk ( difference in probability and/or
consequences)

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

13

Risk Management
Why to manage the risk---

Profit ( Market position)


Protection of company assets ( major loss exposure)
Continued company operation (business interruption)
Continued growth (business expansion)
Humanitarian concern (employee and public safety)
Community good will (potential embarrassment)
Legal requirements
Insurance company requirements
Environmental concern

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

14

Risk Management
If the risk is not in acceptable range
How to manage the risk

Avoiding the risky operations

Risk transfer by purchasing insurance coverage

Reducing the risk by adopting loss control


improvements

Developing a risk management program that includes


a combination of the above

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

15

Risk Management Program

Probability
of loss event
occurrence
Fire-Explosion
Hazard
Identification

Consequential effects
Intensity of loss event
Potential impact on
-people
-property
-business operation
-environment
-company image

Acceptable Risk
Monitor

Risk
Quantification
pXc
-----------------Recommendation

Cost/benefit analysis of
loss control alternatives
Risk reduction benefit
Prevention/Protection cost
RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

Risk
managt
acceptance
criteria
---------Decision

Non-acceptable
- Avoidance
- Transfer
- Retention
----------------Loss control
Improvements

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

16

Loss Control Program

Fire prevention - through designs, operational


control, training, maintenance
Automatic fire detection and suppression -fixed fire
protection systems to detect, suppress and control
Protection for structures and equipment - fire
protection standards for active and passive measures
Manual protection - manual fire fighting systems as
back-up to active and passive fixed fire protection
systems
Audit program - auditing procedure for new plant
facilities, plant modification, self-inspection, and
maintenance activities

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

17

10 commandants for Fire Prevention

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Site selection - for dangerous / hazardous operation


Proper design as per standard code and practices
Material selection - suitable for operation
Electrical classification of hazardous area
Fire proofing
Process safety requirements
Training
Pre-alarm signals
Leak detection and alarm system
Housekeeping and storage practices

RELIANCE FIRE TRAINING SCHOOL

RFTS / SD / 01 -- Hazard -Risk

18