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# MECH3400

## Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer

Part II Heat Transfer
Mechanical Engineering
The University of Queensland,
Room 45-215 Mansergh Shaw
Off : +617 33654315
Office hours 10-11 am Tue
Except this
week
When its 11-12
WED

Course objectives
Identify the modes of heat transfer
Explain heat transfer mechanisms and
principles.
Solve simple 1D steady state heat transfer
problems.

Learning Resources
Textbook
Incropera, F.P., and DeWitt, D.P., Fundamentals of Heat
and Mass Transfer, 5th Ed., (2002), John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., New York.
Lecture Notes: Course Profile Section 3 online resources.
Tutorial Problem sheet: Course Profile Section 3 online
resources.
Solution to Tutorial Problems: Course Profile Section 3
online resources.
References
Kreith, F., and Bohn, M.S., (2001), Principles of Heat
Transfer, 6th Ed., Harper and Row.
Chapman, A.J., Heat Transfer, 4th Ed, (1984), Macmillan
Pub Co Ltd, London.
Holman, J.P., Heat Transfer, 7th Ed. (1992), McGraw-Hill
Book Co Inc, New York.

Course Structure

General Introduction
Heat transfer and thermodynamics; Modes of heat transfer;
Equations for conduction, convection and radiation
Conduction
The rate equation
1 D steady state conduction without heat generation [chp3]; 1 D steady
state conduction with heat generation [chp3]
Convection
The convection boundary layers [6.1-6.4]; Boundary layer similarity
[6.5-6.10]; External flow [chapter 7]; Internal flow [chapter 8]
Design of Heat Exchangers (Modules 9-11)[Chp11]
Calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient;
Analysis of heat exchangers using the LMTD method;
Analysis of heat exchangers using the effectiveness-NTU method
Combined heat transfer problems (Module 12)
Examples of combined heat transfer problems
Review (Module 13)

Learning Objectives
1.Identify the modes of heat transfer and describe the mechanisms
2.Understand the parameters in the heat transfer equations and use the heat
transfer equations to solve simple problems
3.Be familiar with the procedure of solving a heat transfer problem using the
heat equation
4.Solve one-dimensional steady state conduction problems without heat
generation
5.Solve one-dimensional steady state conduction problems with heat
generation
6.Be familiar with the procedure of calculating the convective heat transfer
coefficient
7.Calculate convective heat transfer coefficient for external flow
8.Calculate the convective heat transfer coefficient for internal flow and free
convection
9.Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient
10.Design and evaluate heat exchanger using the log mean temperature
method
11.Design and evaluate heat exchanger using the effectiveness-NTU method
12.Solve 1D steady state combined modes heat transfer problems

## Engineering sense for Heat transfer

Exam Problem?
o
Assuming the convection
Tambientcoefficient
=23 C
is constant, and the specific heat
and densities of water and milk are
equal, should I:

## a)Pour the milk then answer the

phone ?
b)Answer the phone then pour the
milk after the 10 minute
200ml of tea 90 C
conversation
is finished? 50ml of milk 4 C
o

## What is Heat transfer ?

Heat Transfer (or heat) is thermal energy
in transit due to a temperature difference.
Whenever there exists a temperature
difference Heat Transfer MUST exist.
Thermal energy: Thermal energy is associated with the
translation, rotation, vibration and electronic states of the
atoms and molecules that comprise matter. It represents
the cumulative effect of microscopic activities and is directly
linked to the temperature of matter.
Incropera and Dewitt

T2 < T1
T1

q k

T2

dT
dx

Flux
q

1-Conduction

Bulk velocity =0
T2 < T1

T1

High T
energy

Low
energy
x

1-Conduction
1-Conduction

1-Conduction
T2 < T1

T1

## Conduction through a gas

1-Conduction
Conduction: collision between molecules
or atoms (fluid); lattice waves induced by
atomic and translational motion of the free
electrons (solid)

2-Convection
Convection is comprised of two fundamental phenomena
1-Diffusion
2- Macroscopic motion of molecules

convection

2-Convection
Convection occurs between a moving fluid
and a solid.

2-Convection
Increasing
U , T
T
u

Ts
Increasing
Diffusion
U(y)

T(y)

Types of Convection

Forced convection

## Fluid motion induced by

external means

Types of Convection
Chilled water
pipes

## Hot air rising

Qout

Qin

Natural convection

## Cool air falling

Driven by buoyancy

3-Phase Change
Boiling, condensation
q

Water

Hot Plate

Prof Gus Plumb will give a 2 hour lecture on heat transfer by boiling.
Mon Apr 21 2008 8am

Convection
q '' h(Ts T )
Flux W/m

Surface
Temp
Convection
coefficient

Freestream
Temp

Gas

Gas

T, h

T, h

Surface of emissivity ,
absorptivity , and Temperature
Ts

## Surface of emissivity = , Area

A and Temperature Ts

Conduction
T2 < T1

T1
q

insulator
x
A

## qx the conducted heat rate in the x-direction has

phenomenologically been found to be adequately
represented by:

dT
q x kA
dx
Conductivity

Fouriers Law
T2 < T1

T1
q

insulator
x
A

qx
dT
qx ''
k
A
dx

r T r T r T
q '' k T k i
j
k
y
z
x

Conductivity
Thermal conductivity
Solid > liquid > gas
Pure metals > alloys > nonmetallic solids >
insulation systems
Thermal conductivity of liquid increases with
decreasing liquid molecular weight
Liquid metal > nonmetallic liquid
Thermal conductivity of gas increases with
decreasing gas molecular weight

Conduction
A major objective in conduction analysis
the calculation of the temperature field ie
the Temperature distribution : the value of
the temperature scalar as a function of
position.

## The heat diffusion equation

qz+dz

qy+dy

A homogenous medium in
which
Bulk velocity = 0

&
E& Eg

qx

qx+dx

st

dy

dz
qy
qz

dx

T(x,y,z)

qy+dy

qz+dz

out

&
E&st Eg

qx

qx+dx

dy

dz
qy
qz

dx

in

qx
qx dx qx
dx
x
q y
q y dy q y
dy
y
q
qz dz qz z dz
z

qy+dy

qz+dz

&
E&st Eg

qx

qx+dx

dy

dz
qy
qz

qx
dx
x
q y
q y dy q y
dy
y
q
qz dz qz z dz
z
qx dx qx

dx

&
E&g qdxdydz
T
&
Est c p
dxdydz
t

qx
qx dx qx
dx
x
q y
q y dy q y
dy
y
q
qz dz qz z dz
z

qy+dy qz+dz

qx

E&st

dy

dz

&
E&g qdxdydz
T
E&st c p
dxdydz
t

qx+dx

E&g

qy
qz

dx

## E&in E&g E&st E&out

qz+dz

qy+dy

E&st

qx

qx+dx

E&g

dy

dz
qy
qz

dx

&
qx q y qz qdxdydz
qx dx q y dy qz dz

T
c p
dxdydz
t

&
qx q y qz qdxdydz
qx dx q y dy qz dz c p
Recall that

qx
qx dx qx
dx
x
q y
q y dy q y
dy
y
qz
qz dz qz
dz
z

T
dxdydz
t

q y
qx
qz
T
&

dx
dy
dz qdxdydz
c p
dxdydz
x
y
z
t
Recall Fouriers Law

Area

T
qx kdydz
x

dz
qx

qx+dx
dy

q y
qx
qz
T
&

dx
dy
dz qdxdydz
c p
dxdydz
x
y
z
t

qx kdydz
q y kdxdz

T
x

T
y

T
qz kdxdy
z

## Finally divide the whole equation by the volume dxdydz

T
T

T
T
&
k

c
p

x x
y y
z
z
t
qy+dy

qz+dz

*dx qx qx dx
&
E&st Eg

qx

qx+dx

dy

dz
qy
qz

dx

If thermal conductivity is constant, you can divide the whole equation by k and

2T 2T 2T q& 1 T
2 2
2
x
y
z
k t
Where is the thermal diffusivity
given by

cp

Under steady state conditions and with no heat generation then the storage
quantity reduces to zero and the heat equation reduces to

T
T

T
k k k q& 0
x x
y y
z
z
For one dimensional steady state heat transfer

T
k 0
x x
i.e the heat flux is constant in the direction of the heat transfer.

q
T2,h2
Ts1

Ts2

T1,h1

x=L
0

T
T

T
T
&
k k k q cp
x x
y y
z
z
t

Q
T2,h2
Ts1
Ts2

T1,h1

x=L
Integrate twice wrt x

T
k 0
x x

T ( x) C1 x C2

T ( x) C1 x C2

## In order to calculate C1 and C2 we need to

apply the BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:
@x=0 T=Ts,1

@x=l T=Ts,2

C2=Ts,1

T ( x) C1 x Ts ,1

T ( x) Ts ,2 Ts ,1

x
Ts ,1
L

T ( x) Ts ,2 Ts ,1

x
Ts ,1
L

## For one dimensional steady state conduction in a plane wall with no

heat generation and constant thermal conductivity the temperature
varies linearly with x ,
Fouriers law can now be stated as

qx kA

dT
A
k Ts ,1 Ts ,2
dx
L
i.e the flux is

q ''x

k
Ts ,1 Ts ,2

V
q
I

V
R
I

Rt ,cond

Ts ,1 Ts ,2
qx

kA

## also convection resistance based on:

q hA Ts T
Can be defined as

Rt ,conv

Ts T 1

q
hA

Ts1

Ts2
T2,h2
Ts3

Ts4

T1,h1
KA

KB

x=L

1
h1 A

LA
kA A

KC

LB
kB A

LC
kC A

1
h A
2

T1 T 2

T1 T 2
qx
LC
1
LA
LB
1

h1 A K A A K B A K C A h 2 A

qx

T1 T 2 Ts1 Ts 2 Ts 2 Ts 3 Ts 3 Ts 4

1
LA
LB
LC
h1 A
KAA
KB A
KC A

qx UAT
Where

Rtot
1

L
1
L
L
1
A
A B C
h1 K A K B K C h 2

Contact resistance
qx
qx

qcontact

qgap

R "t ,c

TA TB
q ''x

MEC H3400
Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer
Part II Heat Transfer
Mechanical Engineering
The University of Queensland,
Room 45-215 Mansergh Shaw
Off : +617 33654315
Office hours 10-11 am Tue

T
T

T
T
&
k

x x
y y
z
z
t
For a steady state one dimensional heat
transfer and no energy generation
The heat equation for a steady state one
dimensional heat transfer and no energy
generation for a hollow cylinder

T
k 0
x x
1 d
dT
kr

r dr
dr

Fouriers Law
We stated the phenomenologically found
Fouriers law of conduction in one direction

direction

qx kA

qx kA

dT
dx

dT
dT
k 2 rL
dr
dr

## Cylindrical heat transfer

Steady state conditions with no heat generation
Cold fluid

1 d
dT
kr

r dr
dr

h 2 ,T2
Why is it
curved ?

Ts2

r1

Ts1
Ts2

1 d
dT
kr
r dr
dr

r2

Hot fluid
h 1 ,T1

r1

r2

Ts1
1
h1 2 r1 L

ln r2 / r1
2 Lk

1
h2 2 r1 L

## Assume the conduction coefficient is constant and

integrate the heat equation twice

1 d
dT
kr
r dr dr

T (r ) C1 ln r C2
Apply the boundary conditions
T(r1) = Ts1
T(r1) = Ts2

Which gives

Ts1 C1 ln r1 C2
Ts2 C1 ln r2 C2

## Solving the two equations

simultaneously gives C1 and
C2 and substituting into the
general solution gives

T (r )

Ts1 Ts2 r
ln Ts2
ln r1 / r2
r2

## The wall temperature in the cylinder is logarithmic and not linear

like the case for the plane wall under the same conditions
Take the derivative of T(r) wrt r and substitute dT/dr in Fouriers
Law in cylindrical form
dT
qr k 2 rL
dr

Which gives

qr 2 kL

Ts1 Ts2 r
ln
ln r2 / r1
r2

dT/dr

qr 2 kL

Ts1 Ts2 r
ln
ln r2 / r1
r2

analogy

Rt ,cond

resistance

Rt ,cond

Ts1 Ts 2
qr

ln r2 / r1
2 Lk

## Note that the heat rate is

NOT a linear function of

## Cylindrical heat transfer

Rt ,cond

ln r2 / r1
2 Lk

Cold fluid
h 2 ,T2
1
h1 2 r1 L

Ts2

r1
1 d
dT
kr
r dr
dr

r2

Hot fluid
h 1 ,T1

Ts1

ln r2 / r1
2 Lk

1
h2 2 r1 L

Composite cylindrical
wall

1
1
ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 ) ln(r4 / r3 )
h1 2 r1 L 2 k A L 2 k B L 2 kC L h2 2 r4 L

## The heat transfer rate

qr

T1 T 2
ln(r2 / r1 ) ln(r3 / r2 ) ln(r4 / r3 )
1
1

h1 2 r1 L 2 k A L
2 k B L
2 kC L h2 2 r4 L

## Wall with Heat generation

We looked at a wall with no heat generation.
Many cases require the consideration of a wall
with heat generation.
One such case is heat generation due to
resistance.
The rate at which energy is generated by by
passing a current I through the resistance R
If you assume the power generated is uniform In
this case

E&g I 2 R
E&g

I 2R
q&

Volume Volume

## Let us solve for the temperature field starting with the

heat rate equation

## Plane wall with uniform heat generation

0

0
ss

T
T

T
T
&
k k k q cp
x x
y y
z
z
t
Plane wall
Assume conductivity
is constant
The heat rate equation
simplifies to

d 2T q&
0
dx k
q& 2
T
x C1 x C2
2k

Uniform
means this
term is
constant

## Plane wall with uniform heat generation

Solving for C1 and C2
depends on the boundary
conditions

q& 2
T
x C1 x C2
2k

Case 1
T2,h2

## The boundary conditions are

T(-L)=Ts,1 and T(L)=Ts,2

Ts1
Ts2
T1,h1

This gives

x=-L

x x=L

## Plane wall with uniform heat

generation
q& 2
T
x C1 x C2
2k

C1

Ts ,2 Ts ,1
2L

C2 Ts ,2

&2
Ts ,2 Ts ,1 x Ts ,2 Ts ,1
qL
x 2
T ( x)
1 2

2k
L
2
2

## Solving for C1 and C2

depends on the boundary
conditions

q& 2
T
x C1 x C2
2k

Case 2
Plane wall with uniform heat generation , both sides
maintained at the same temperature
T2,h2
The boundary conditions are

Ts

Ts

## T(-L)=Ts and T(L)=Ts

This gives a symmetrical
temperature distribution

T1,h1

&2
qL
x 2
T ( x)
1 2 Ts
2k
L
x=-L

x x=L

## The maximum temperature for this case is

at the center and is given by

&2
qL
T (0)
Ts
2k
The temperature gradient at this location is

d
T ( x) 0
dx
Which means that no heat crosses the mid-plane

## The problem may be represented with an adiabatic

mid-plane

T2,h2
Ts

x x=L

Extended Surfaces
The term extended surface is used to depict an important special case
involving heat transfer by conduction (and/or radiation) from the boundaries
of a solid.

So far the direction of heat transfer from the boundaries has been taken to
be in the same direction as that within the solid
For an extended surface the direction of heat transfer from the boundaries
is perpendicular to the direction of the principle heat transfer in the solid

## Assume a structural element connecting two walls at

different temperatures
T2

qx2
x

T,h

T2

qconv

T1
T1>T2> T

qx1

T1

T(x)
dT/dx| to decrease with
increasing x

## When such an extended surface is used to enhance the heat transfer

between the solid and the fluid then the extended surface is called a
FIN

## How to improve heat transfer?

T, h

Increase h

q=hA(Ts-T)
Increase the difference between
Ts and T

Ts, A

## How to improve heat transfer?

T, h

q=hA(Ts-T)
Increase the area !

Examples of fins

In heat exchangers
In A/C evaporators and condensers
Refrigerators

Examples of fins

Types of fins

CSA

CSA

## Pin fin- nonuniform

CSA

dAs

dqconv
qx+dx
x

qx
dx

Ac(x)

qx qx dx dqconv
dT
qx kAc
dx

qx dx
Fouriers law

qx dx
Infinitesimal thickness
assumption

dqx
qx
dx
dx

dT
d
dT
kAc k Ac dx
dx
dx
dx

qx qx dx dqconv
dT
qx kAc
dx

qx dx
Substitute

qx dx

dqx
qx
dx
dx

dT
d
dT
kAc k Ac dx
dx
dx
dx
dqconv hdAs T T

d
dT
h As
T T 0
Ac
dx
dx
k dx

d 2T 1 dAc dT
1 h dAs

T T 0
2
dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx

MECH3400
Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer
Part II Heat Transfer
Mechanical Engineering
The University of Queensland,
Room 45-215 Mansergh Shaw
Off : +617 33654315
Office hours 10-11 am Tue
Except this
week
When its 10-11
WED

## We derived the general

energy equation for a
generic extended
surface

d 2T 1 dAc dT
1 h dAs

T T 0
2
dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx

## Carry out the appropriate

simplifications on the
energy equation
Solve the differential
equation
Apply the appropriate
boundary conditions

## Uniform CSA Fins

Straight fin- uniform CSA
for rectangular
configuration

## Uniform CSA means Ac is

Constant
As = Px
is involved for circular
configuration

Equation for
P depends on
configuration

Straight Fin
T,h

qconv

qf
w

Ac=wt

= 2w+2t

Pin Fin
T,h

qconv

qf

D
L
Ac=D2/4
x
P=D

0, Ac = const
=>dAc/dx = 0

Since As =
Px =>dAs/dx
=P

d 2T 1 dAc dT
1 h dAs

T T 0
2
dx Ac dx dx Ac k dx

d 2T hP

T T 0
2
dx Ac k

d T hP

T T 0
2
dx Ac k
2

T ( x) T
i.e
T ( x) T

temperature as :
Substituting

d hP

0
2
dx Ac k
2

gives

d 2
2
m 0
2
dx

Where we
define

hP
m
kAc
2

## A general solution for this

ODE

is

d 2
2

m
0
2
dx

( x) C1e mx C2e mx

is

(0) Tb T b

## The second B/C is dependent on the assumptions made about the

end (tip) of the fin.

BOUNDARY CONDITION 2
CASE1- Assume that the heat is convected away from the tip then for
this tip condition

## i.e from the surface at the end of

the fin with area Ac and with
convective heat transfer
magnitude

kAc

dT
dx

hAc T ( L) T

xL

i.e.

## And in terms of the excess

temperature

dT
hAcT ( L) T kAc
dx

d
hAc ( L) kAc
dx

xL

xL

General solution

( x) C1e mx C2 e mx

## To process the first boundary condition

Substitute x=0

Then
substitute

gives
The boundary conditions are

(0) b
hAc ( L) kAc

b C1 C2
d
dx

xL

Substitute x=L
General solution

## The derivative of the

general solution wrt x

( x) C1e mx C2 e mx
d
mC1e mx mC2e mx
dx
Then
substitute

The
second
boundary
condition
is

hAc ( L) kAc

d
dx

(0) b
x L

## After all substitutions the

two resulting B/C
equations are

b C1 C2
and
h C1e mL C2 e mL km C2e mL C1e mL

## Which can be solved simultaneously for

C1 and C2
Substituting C1 and C2
back into the general
solution gives the excess
temperature distribution

h
sinh m L x
mk
h
cosh mL
sinh mL
mk

cosh m L x

h,T

by

qconv

h
sinh m L x
mk
h
cosh mL
sinh mL
mk

cosh m L x

x
b

## It can be seen that the excess temperature

gradient decreases with increasing x as
increasing heat is convected away from the
fin with increasing x

0
0

h,T

## One way to solve for the total flux through

the fin is by noting that

qf

qf=qb

## The total the transfer from the fin

qf passes through the base of the
fin qb
i.e.

qf qb k

0
0

dT
dx

k
x 0

d
dx

x 0

h
sinh m L x
mk
h
cosh mL
sinh mL
mk

cosh m L x

## Take the derivative d/dx

Substitute in the derivatiave
then substitute the derivative in Fouriers Law

flux for the fin

h
sinh mL
cosh mL
mk
q f hPkAcb
h
cosh mL
sinh mL
mk

## The other way to solve

for the total flux through
the fin is by noting that
all the flux through the fin
is convected away i.e
Where Af is the total fin Area
= As+Ac

qf

h T ( x) T

Af

or
qf

h ( x)

Af

qf

h ( x)

Af

## Substitution for also

gives the equation for
the total flux from the
fin

h
sinh m L x
mk
h
cosh mL
sinh mL
mk

b cosh m L x

h
sinh mL
cosh mL
mk
q f hPkAcb
h
cosh mL
sinh mL
mk

BOUNDARY CONDITION 2
CASE 2 - If we assume that the heat convected away from the tip is
negligible then the problem can be approached by assuming that the
area Ac is insulated i.e.
qf

i.e.

d
dx

## Substituting zero for

the derivative of the
general solution with
respect to x

qb

x L

end
condition

d
mC1e mx mC2 e mx
dx
Then dividing by m gives

C1e mx C2 e mx 0

b C1 C2
C1e C2e
mx

## We can solve for C1 and

C2 and then substitute
the results in the general
solution which gives the
excess temperature field

## And the heat

transfer rate

mx

cosh m L x

b
cosh mL

q f hPkAcb tanh mL

BOUNDARY CONDITION 2
CASE 3- If we prescribe a temperature at the tip

qf

## We can solve for the

excess temperature field
in a similar fashion

qb

L
sinh mx sinh m L x
b

b
sinh mL

TL

L L

hPkAcb cosh mL
And the heat
transfer rate

qf

sinh mL

L
b

qf
qb

The excess
temperature
field

e mx
b

transfer rate

q f hPkAcb

performance ?
qf
f
hAc ,bb

## Heat transfer from the fin

Heat transfer from the body if the
fin did not exist

Fin effectiveness

Heuristic

f 2

## Otherwise the fin

is difficult to justify

For the very long fin assuming the convection coefficient is the same
with and without the fin the effectiveness is given by

kP
f

hAc

1/ 2

## Fin Performance is enhanced by using higher

conductivity material although cost must also be
taken into account
Fin Performance is enhanced by using a larger
perimeter to CSA i.e. the thinner and closer the
fins the better
Fins are more effective where the convective
coefficient is smaller which is the reason why
fins are on the air side of an auto mobile radiator.
Because of the infinite length assumption this
equation gives an upper limit for the effectiveness
of a fin.

performance ?
f

qf
hAf b

## Heat transfer from the fin

Heat transfer from the body if the
entire fin was at the base
temperature

Fin efficiency

Rt , f

qf

Convection

## So far we have discussed conduction and

have considered convection only as a
boundary condition for conduction
problems. We now investigate convection
in greater detail.

2-Convection
Convection occurs between a moving fluid
and a solid.

2-Convection
Convection is comprised of two fundamental phenomena
1-Diffusion
2- Macroscopic motion of molecules

convection

## The velocity boundary Layer

u()=0.99*U

(x)

U(y)

U , T

Moving but
retarded by
the layer
just below it
layer

(x)

Moving but
severely
retarded by
the bottom
layer

Stationary
In touch and not slipping with the
plate thus must be stationary
No-slip boundary condition

du
s
dy
For a Newtonian fluid

It is useful to
normalise by the
dynamic pressure to
get a local surface
friction coefficient

Cf

s
1
u 2
2

## The thermal boundary Layer

The layers of fluid
exchange energy
which

(x)
T

T()=0.99*T

T(y)

U , T

T(y)

Ts

Bottom
layer with
temperature
= Ts

Heat exchange
between

diffusion only
Conduction!

## If heat transfer to the surface is by

conduction then it is given by
Fouriers Law

qs k f

T
y

y 0

## Convected flux is given by

qs h Ts T

k f
h

T
y

y 0

Ts T

h
Decreases with
increasing
boundary layer
thickness
Decreases with
increasing distance from
plate

T
k f
y

y 0

Ts T

Constant in x

Decreases with
increasing
boundary layer
thickness

## Local vs. Average

q
shaped body at a constant
temperature Ts and with area
As
and it is approached
by a fluid at T and
velocity V
Depending on the BL
thickness and other
factors the heat
transfer coefficient will
vary around the body

T ,V

## The heat transfer rate

from this infinitesimal
part of the body is the
product of the flux and
the infinitesimal area
and is given by

Ts, As

dq h Ts T dAs

dAs

## Local vs. Average

The total heat transfer from
the body is given by

h T

T dAs

As

## The total heat transfer from

the body may be expressed in
terms of an average
convection coefficient

Gives the
average
convection
coefficient for
the whole body

q h Ts T As

1
h
As

hdAs

As

## Local vs. Average

T ,V
q
For a flat plate
the convection
coefficient
varies only
with the with
the Length and
is given by
L

1
h hdx
L0

Ts, As
Why are we introducing the
average convection coefficient ?

dAs

## Why are we introducing the

average convection coefficient ?
Because the local heat transfer coefficient to many variables
other than the Boundary layer thickness
Surface Roughness
Laminar/Turbulent
Fluid density
Vary with
Temperature

Fluid viscosity
Fluid conductivity

This makes the local heat transfer coefficient not easy to calculate

## Laminar and Turbulent Flow

1 Viscous sublayer
2 Buffer Layer
3

Turbulent region

u
2
1

Laminar

Transition

Turbulent

## Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Velocity profiles in the laminar and
turbulent areas are very different
U
y

y 0, Lam

U
y

y 0,Turb

## Which means that the convective

coefficient must be different
u

Laminar

Transition

Turbulent

## Some Characteristics Turbulent

flow

Chaotic.
Diffusive. Dissipative.
Heat transfer is increased in turbulent flow.
Continuum phenomenon. The Kolmogorov
scale is much larger than the molecular
scale.

## How do we characterize whether

flow is laminar or Turbulent?
Local Reynolds #
u x
Re

Ratio of inertia to
viscous forces

Cp
Pr

hL
Nu f Re L , Pr
k

Ratio of
momentum
diffusivity to
thermal diffusivity

Ratio of
convection to
pure conduction

## General method of solving

convection problems
Find the Nu
hL
Use the definition of Nu
k
to solve for h
Solve for the heat
transfer rate q hA T Ts

Experiment
Pr=Pr1
Pr=Pr2
Pr=Pr3

Log ( Nu L )

Log (Re L )

T ,V

P IV hL As Ts T

Ts,As

R
I
V

Log ( NuL )

NuL C Rem Pr n
Log (Re L )

## We know the properties of the boundary

layer vary across the boundary layer hence
we define a film temperature which we will
use in conjunction with the previous
relations

define

Ts T
Tf
2