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Instructor

Neelima Gupta

ngupta@cs.du.ac.in

Table of Contents

Walks

May have repeated Edges and

Vertices.

In case of multi-graph, we include

the edges also. In a simple graph, we

can omit the edges and simply

mention the sequence of vertices.

Closed Walk

Trails

No repeated edges but vertices may

repeat.

Closed Trail

Path

Neither vertices nor edges repeat.

Definition:

we say that a u-v walk W contains a u-v path P if

all the edges and vertices of P occur in W and in

that order but not necessarily consecutive.

Similarly a closed walk W contains a cycle C if

..

Odd/Even Walk

Odd/Even walk : number of edges is

odd/even

Lemma: Every closed odd walk contains an

odd cycle.

Remark: A closed even walk need not even

contain a cycle, it may simply repeat

edges. But, if an edge e appears exactly

once in a closed walk, then the walk

contains a cycle through e.

Even Graph

A vertex is stb even(/odd) if its

degree is even(/odd).

A graph is stb an even graph if all its

vertices are even.

Maximal Path

A path in a graph is stb maximal if it

is not contained in a longer path.

If a graph is finite, maximal path always

exists.

degree at least 2 then it contains a

cycle.

This is not true if the graph is not finite.

Connection Relation

(u,v): u is stb connected to v

Symmetric, Reflexive, Transitive

Equivalence Relation

Equivalence Class: Connected

Component

k edges has at least n k

components.

Proof: A graph with no edges has n

components. Adding an edges

reduces the number of components

by at most 1. Thus after adding k

edges, number of components is at

least n k.

Deleting an edge/vertex

G e: Deleting an edge does not delete its incident vertices.

G v: Deleting a vertex delete its incident edges.

Thus deleting an edge may increase the number of components

by at most 1.

Deleting a vertex v may increase the number of components by

(more) at most deg(v) 1.

Induced Graph G[T] = Graph that remains after deleting some

vertices such that the set of remaining vertices is T. i.e.

G[T] = (T, E(T)), where E(T) = {(u, v):u,v are in T and (u,v) is an edge in G}

An edge e is stb a cut edge if

A vertex v is stb a cut vertex if

Characterize cut-edges in terms of

cycles.

Theorem: An edge is a cut edge iff it

does not belong to any cycle.

Bi-partite Graphs

Konig Theorem : Characterizing

Bipartite Graphs in terms of cycles: A

graph is bipartite iff it has no odd

cycles.

Testing whether a graph is bipartite:

Union of Graphs

Definition:

K4 : a union of two 4-cycles.

bi-partite graphs iff n < 2k.

Eulerian Circuits

A graph is Eulerian if it has a closed

trail containing all the edges.

A graph is Eulerian iff it has at most

one non-trivial component and all its

vertices have even degree.

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