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Protection- mechanical, chemical,

bacterial
Body temperature regulation
Prevent water loss
Metabolic- synthesize vitamin D
Cutaneous Sensation
Blood reservoir
Excretion
Prevent UV damage

An organ, cells constantly dying and being replaced

Facts:
Weighs 9-11 lbs
s.a. = 1.5-2m2
1 cm2 has 70 cm blood vessels, 55 cm
nerves, 100 sweat glands, 15 oil
glands, 230 sensory receptors
New skin produced in 25-45 days

Keratinocytes (90%)- waterproofs & protects


skin, nails, hair, stratum corneum
Melanocytes (8%)- produce melanin
Merkel Cells- slow mechanoreceptors
Langerhans Cells- immunological defense

Stratum Corneum

Stratum Lucidum

Stratum
Granulosum

Stratum Spinosum

Stratum Basale(Germinativum)

Dermis

papillary dermis
reticular dermis

a. Cellular
Fibroblasts (synthesize collagen, elastin, and reticulin),
histiocytes, endothelial cells, perivascular macrophages and
dendritic cells, mast cells, smooth muscle, and cells of
peripheral nerves and their end-organ receptors.
b. Fibrous
Collagen & reticulin - provide tensile strength
Elastic fibers- provide for restoration of shape after a
deformation
c. Ground substance
glycosaminoglycans: hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and
dermatan sulfate.

Hypodermis

This layer contains adipose tissue and serves to attach the


dermis to its underlying tissues.

Some variations in human skin color


(Sub-Saharan African, Indian, Southern European, and Northwest European)

Skin color due to: Melanin, Carotene & Hemoglobin


Melanin Pigments:
Eumelanin:
Phaeomelanin
> Eumelanin:Phaeomalanin- darker skin and hair color;
< Eumelanin:Phaeomalanin- lighter skin and hair color

Human complexions are generally classified into six skin types:


I -light skinned, burns easily, never tans

25% US pop

II - light skinned, burns easily, tans some


III - light skinned, burns occasionally, tans well
IV - light skinned, tans well, rarely burns
V - brown skinned (Asian, Indo-Asian, Chinese, Japanese),
tans well, burns rarely, can sunburn after prolonged
exposure to UVR
VI - black skinned (Afro-Caribbean), deeply pigmented, can
burn after prolonged exposure to UVR

Cyanotic
Jaundice
Erythema
Pallor

Pigmentation levels usually increase with


age.
- exception: premature graying
Normal pigmentation may be altered by
genetic defects or by acquired diseases.
-Hyperpigmentation- age spots
-Hypopigmentation- vitiligo,
albinism

External agents can also alter skin color.

lightening agents

carotene

dyes

Some internal compounds--such as the


byproducts of hemoglobin metabolism--may
color the skin.

Sunless
tanning

Malignant melanoma

2% of all cancers

Risks:
1. Skin type
2. Sun exposure
3. Family history

Normal mole

Melanoma

4. Age

A= asymmetry

5. Immunological status

B= border

C= color

D= diameter

Sweat Glands

Eccrine (merocrine) glands- sweat


Apocrine glands- axillary & anogenital areas
Ceruminous glands- ears canal
Mammary glands- female reproductive glands

Sweat
glands
Ceruminous
glands

Sebaceous

Hair
Hair shaft
Sebaceous gland

Hair root
Hair bulb in follicle

Nail

1st Degree: epidermal damage


Ex. sunburn
2nd Degree: epidermis & upper
dermis
Ex. blisters
3rd Degree: entire thickness of
skin

Skin replacement:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXO_ApjKPaI

Blood vessels dilate


WBC & clotting agents released
Scab forms

Granulation tissue forms


Capillary beds invade clot
Clean up begins

Scar area has contracted


Epithelium regeneration begins

1.
2.
3.
4.

In which lay of skin are blood vessels located?


Where does epithelium regeneration begin?
What color is a persons skin if they are cyanotic?
List the layer of the epidermis in order from top to
bottom.
5. What is the primary tissue of the hypodermis?