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TRANSDUCERS

Transducers
 Transducer

is a device that converts
energy in one form of energy in
another.
 In electrical and electronics,
transducer converts:
First: Electrical energy to nonelectrical energy; or
Second: Non-electrical energy to
electrical energy

Transducers
 The

second conversion pertains to
device called sensor
 Non electrical energy is sometimes
called stimulus, and usually in the
form of heat, light, sound, displacement
etc.
 Main functions of transducer is to:
SENSE the presence of measurand
Humidity level, Force and load,
Color, Amplitude, etc
PROVIDE output for the electrical/

Classification of Transducer
according to their electrical operating principle

 PASSIVE

This transducer requires an
external power, and their output is
measure of some variation, such as
resistance or capacitance.
 SELF-GENERATING
These transducers do not require
an external power, and they produce
electrical output (such as voltage)
when triggered by some form of non-

Proximity/Position Sensors
 Passive

type of transducer
 Usually used to determine when an object has
moved within some particular critical distance of
the sensor.
 Application:
 Collision detection
 Detection of the

presence/absent of an object
 Metal and Non metal
detection
 Industrial manufacturing
applications: packaging,
parts sorting, etc.

Proximity/Position Sensors
 Categorized

as:
Contact Type
*Limit Switch
Non-Contact Type
*Capacitive Type - ex. Sense the non-metal and metal
object
* Inductive Type – ex. Metal detection
*Optical Type – ex. Collision Avoidance mobile robot

Inductive Transducer
As self-generating type
Utilizes the basic electrical generator principle , that when
there is relative motion between a conductor and magnetic field,
a voltage is induced in the conductor (generator action)
Example: TACHOMETER
A tachometer is an inductive transducer that directly converts
speed or velocity into an electrical signal

Piezolectric Transducer
A

Self generating type transducer
 Converts Vibration to electrical signal and
vice versa.
 This device can produce an voltage across
the crystal proportional to the magnitude
of the applied pressure (Vibration)
 The output is typically on order of 1 to
30mV per gram of acceleration.
 The principal disadvantage of this
transducer is that voltage will generated
only as long the pressure applied to
piezoelectric element is changing.

Temperature Transducer
 Some

types are passive and
some are self generating
 Four Main Categories:
 Resistance Temperature Detector

(RTD)- Passive type
 Thermocouples –Self-generating type
 Thermistor – passive type
 Ultrasonic Transducer – passive type

Resistance Temperature
Detectors (RTD)
 It

is also called Resistance
Thermometer
 Used to determine the temperature
by measuring the resistance of pure
electrical wire. This wire is referred
to as a temperature sensor. If we
want to measure temperature with
high accuracy, RTD is the only one
solution in industries. It has good
linear characteristics over a wide

Resistance Temperature
Detectors (RTD)
 In

RTD devices; Copper, Nickel and Platinum
are widely used metals. These three metals are
having different resistance variations with
respective to the temperature variations. That
is called resistance-temperature
characteristics. Platinum has the temperature
range of 650°C, and then the Copper and
Nickel have 120°C and 300°C respectively

Thermocouples


One of the most commonly used methods of
measuring temperature in science and industry
depends on the thermocouple effect.
Usually constructed from two different metals
(Thermoelements) that are joined together at the
one end, a temperature difference between this end
and the other end of the wires produce a voltage
between the wires.
Joint junction of the two wires of the thermocouple is
called the sensing junction
Thermocouples are made from a number of
difference metals or metal alloys covering wide
range of temperatures from as low as 270 °C as
high as 2700 °C.

Thermocouples

The Seebeck effect is a phenomenon in which a
temperature difference between two dissimilar
electrical conductors  produces a voltage difference
between the two substances. The German
physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck discovered (1821)
this effect.
Applications:
Engineering – to monitor the operating
temperature of
electrical and mechanical
equipment.
Industrial Process – to monitor the temperatures
of liquids
and gases in the storage flowing in
the pipes and
ducts
Medical Works – to measure internal body

Thermistors
A

semiconductor device made by
sintering mixtures metallic oxide such
as oxides of manganese, nickel, cobalt,
copper, and aluminium.
 The device is negative temperature
coefficient
 The resistance decreases as the
temperature rises.
 The typical sensitivity of thermistor is
approximately 3mV/°C at 200 °C

Photoelectric Transducer

Some are passive and some are self generating
Three main Categories
Photoemissive – passive type
Radiation Falling on the cathode causes electrons to be
emitted
from the cathode surface (i.e LED and LASER).
Photoconductive – passive type
Resistance of material is changed when it is illuminated.
Photovoltaic– self generating
Can generate an output voltage proportional to the
radiation
intensity.
The photovoltaic cell or solar cell as its sometimes
called, will
produce an electrical current when connected
to a load. Both
silicon (Si) and Selenium (Se) types
are known.

Displacement Transducer
 Passive

type transducer
 Convert certain movement into some
electrical signal variation.
 It is concerned with the
measurement of the amount by
which some object has been moved
Example: Rotating the control
knob of potentiometer, varies
equivalent resistance.

Classification of
Displacement Transducer
 Reluctance

Transducers
Used in AC measuring circuits
Some examples: reluctance
bridge,
differential transformer
 Potentiometric
Used in DC systems
 Digital Output Transducer
Used when very close accuracy of
measurements is required.

Factors in Selecting
Transducer
 Operating

Range

 Sensitivity
 Frequency

Response and Resonant

Frequency
 Environmental Compatibility
 Accuracy
 Usage and Ruggedness
 Electrical

REVIEW QUESTION:
What

do you call the
thermocuple junction
where the two wires joined
?
Sensing Junction

REVIEW QUESTION:
Which

of the following
sensor has negative
temperature coefficient?
(a) Thermistor
(b) Photodiode
Thermistor
(c) RTD
(d) Thermocouple

REVIEW QUESTION:
 Which

of the following is not a
factor in selecting a transducer
(a) Operating Range
(b) Selectivity
(c) Frequency Response and
Resonant frequency
(d) Durability

Durability

REVIEW QUESTION:
 These

transducers do not require
an external power, and they
produce electrical output (such
as voltage) when triggered by
some form of non-electrical
energy.

Self-generating

REVIEW QUESTION:
 This

transducer requires an
external power, and their output
is measure of some variation,
such as resistance or
capacitance

Passive

REVIEW QUESTION:
 The

output voltage of
piezoelectric transducer is
typically on the order of ___mV
to ___ mV per gram of
acceleration.

1mV to 30mV

REVIEW QUESTION:
 Which

of the following
temperature transducer is
classified as self generating?
(a) RTD
(b) Thermocouples
(c) Thermistor
(d) Ultrasonic Transducers

Thermocouples

REVIEW QUESTION:
A

device that responds to a
stimulus such as heat, light, or
pressure and generates a signal
that can be measured and
interpreted

Sensors

REVIEW QUESTION:
 It

is a device that used to
determine the temperature by
measuring the resistance of the
wire

Resistance Temperature Detector
(RTD)

REVIEW QUESTION:
 An

electrical temperature
sensing device which is
composed of a pair of different
kind of metal wires joined
together at the end and the
other end produces voltage
between the wires.

Thermocouple

REVIEW QUESTION:
 In

____ devices, radiation falling
on a cathode causes the
electrons to be emitted from the
cathode surface.

Photoemissive

REVIEW QUESTION:
 In

___ devices, the resistance of
material is changed when it is
illuminated.

Photoconductive

REVIEW QUESTION:
A

____ is a device, usually
electrical, electronic or electromechanical that coverts one
type of energy to another for
various purposes including
measurement or information
transfer.

Transducer

REVIEW QUESTION:
 Device

that converts changes in
electrical signals into acoustic
form.

Loudspeaker or Speaker