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PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF

VECTOR ANALYSIS & PDE

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2014-ME-21

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2014-ME-45

Vector Analysis

It has a quantity that has direction as well as

magnitude.

or create shadows upon complex surfaces. arise in computer graphics. These may be in the form of describing lines. however. . intersect. which may touch.Applications of Vector Analysis Vector analysis is relatively young in the history of mathematics. surfaces and volumes. in the short period of its existence it has become a powerful and central tool in describing and solving a wide range of geometric problems. collide. many. of which.

1. Electromagnetism (Gauss's Law) is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field. . provides a relationship between the net electrical flux Φ through a closed surface and the net charge enclosed by that surface. Gauss’ law states that the net electric flux out of a closed surface is equal to the charge enclosed by the surface divided by the permittivity. Gauss's law states that: electric flux through any closed surface is proportional to the enclosed electric charge.

Combination of Gauss's Law & Divergence of Vector field .

. one of its application is the Gauss's Law which is combined with divergence theorem and surface integrals of a vector field.Electromagnetic Application (Gauss's Law) In Electromagnetism.

Electromagnetic Application (Gauss's Law) .

Electromagnetic Application (Gauss's Law) .

2. electromagnetic radiation. Signals of interest can include sound. electrical engineering and applied mathematics that deals with operations on or analysis of analog as well as digitized signals. representing timevarying or spatially varying physical quantities. and sensor readings. for example biological measurements such as . Signal Processing it is an area of systems engineering. images.

Example of Signal Processing Consider the problem of designing a smooth takeoff path for an airplane. . You must design the path the plane takes between these two vectors while avoiding jarring the passengers too much during the takeoff. The final vector is the level flight path at a given altitude. The initial vector is the plane heading down the runway just before takeoff.

We can do this because the aircraft is not rotating during takeoff. we have that. 3. We are given (i) the distance to takeoff d. We can therefore write down the position vector r and velocity v of the aircraft at takeoff. and use the straight line motion formulas for r and v to calculate the time t to reach takeoff speed and the acceleration a. at the instant of takeoff . Idealization: We will idealize the aircraft as a particle. represents the (unknown) force exerted on the aircraft due to its engines. Kinematics: We must calculate the acceleration required to reach takeoff speed. 1. FBD: The figure shows a free body diagram. 2. (ii) the takeoff speed and (iii) the aircraft is at rest at the start of the takeoff roll. Taking the origin at the initial position of the aircraft.

Diagram – Airplane Take-off Signal .

which has two back-to-back Hann windows (hann) . . The blue trace seems sufficiently gradual to make a good choice.Example of Signal Processing (Cont.) The Vector Transition plot shows one possible smoothed trajectory (in blue) compared to the direct path (in red). How was this path computed? Look at the Second Derivative (Acceleration) plot.

depending on their intended use on the battlefield. however their low rate of fire and great size and weight precluded any of them from being anything other than experimental. displayed at the Paris Exposition that year. It is used also in aircraft. Cannon vary in caliber. rate of fire. Of course for this we need vectors. mobility. angle of fire. and firepower. all of the major powers were experimenting with aircraft mounted cannons. By World War I. . Cannon A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellants to launch a projectile. different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees. range.3. The first documented installation of a cannon on an aircraft was on the Voisin Canon in 1911.

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Sports (Baseball) Another example of a vector in real life would be an outfielder in a baseball game moving a certain direction for a specific distance to reach a high fly ball before it touches the ground. The outfielder can't just run directly for where he sees the ball first or he is going to miss it by a long shot.4. The player must anticipate what direction and how far the ball will be from him when it drops and move to that location to have the best chance of catching the ball. .

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On the windless day. and we have wind force which direction of it is west. finally plane move diagonally. so due to plane movement is south and wind movement is west. This is the apparent wind. . Although the wind speed is zero (people sitting still feel no breeze).5. Wind Vectors Lets say we have plane with constant velocity. the apparent wind will always be directly in front and equal in speed to the speed of the bicycle. or in the south-west. There is kind of win that experienced by an observer in motion and is the relative velocity of the wind in relation to the observer is called Apparent wind. you will feel a breeze on the bicycle due to the fact that you are moving through the air. and plane move to south. Suppose you are riding a bicycle on a day when there is no wind.

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It is the wind as it appears to the sailor on a moving vessel. Windsurfers and certain types of boats are able to sail faster than the true wind. True wind needs to be calculated or stop the boat. Apparent wind in sailing In sailing. the apparent wind is the actual flow of air acting upon a sail.6. On boats. It differs in speed and direction from the true wind that is experienced by a stationary observer. because of their relatively low amount of drag or friction . These include fast multihulls and some planing monohulls. In nautical terminology. Icesailors and land-sailors also usually fall into this category. apparent wind is measured or "felt on face / skin" if on a dinghy or looking at any telltales or wind indicators on-board. these properties of the apparent wind are normally expressed in knots and degrees.

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and it has initial and final velocity. Torque. and due to rotation it has torque. Velocity and etc For calculating every vectorial unit. For example. acceleration. and of course . every architect have to know their buildings of durability. gravitational. you need vectors. for this they need forces that max how many force will apply to their building. Maybe it seems like boring problem. friction forces. you need vector. for instance finding velocity or acceleration of cars. In construction. Force. For getting the result. there is a tire with mass m.7. reaction. Acceleration. but we need it in daily life.

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if designer consider them accurately then system will be safety.8. Most of the motion in a roller-coaster ride is a response to the Earth's gravitational pull. After the train reaches the top of the first slope the highest point on the ride the train rolls downhill and gains speed under the Earth's gravitational pull. and velocity are important to make a safety system. acceleration. This process occurs over and over again until all the train's energy has been lost to friction and the train of cars slows to a stop. The speed is sufficient for it to climb over the next hill. If no energy were lost to friction. Roller Coaster A roller coaster is an amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. . No engines are mounted on the cars. Here vectors of forces. the train would be able to keep running as long as no point on the track was higher than the first peak.

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This is the actual location of the plane. it would end up 5 miles to the east of the airport. . and the wind's speed and direction as vector B. as the wind has blown the airplane off course. Winds blowing at the plane from the front are called headwinds. and it is travelling at 100 mph. All winds from any direction are calculated as vectors. Air Plane If a plane is trying to fly to an airstrip 50 miles north of its current location. then draw a line from the plane's starting point to the end of vector B. and these vectors affect aircraft courses and require consistent course correction. while winds from the back of the plane are called tailwinds. Add them head to foot. a person might assume the plane would arrive in 30 minutes if the pilot pointed the plane due north. But if the plane had a prevailing wind from the west blowing at 10 miles per hour. Think of the plane's speed and direction as vector A.9.

Applications of PDEs .

0 ≤ x ≤ L.1. . and at any time t > 0. We write u = u(x.specifically the transverse vibrations of a string such as the string of a musical instrument. is released and allowed to vibrate. The diagram shows a possible displacement of the string at a fixed time t. The quantity of interest is the deflection u of the string at any point x. Assume that a string is placed along the x−axis. it is then deflected and at some instant. is stretched and then fixed at ends x = 0 and x = L. t). which we call t = 0. Wave Equations The simplest situation to give rise to the one- dimensional wave equation is the motion of a stretched string .

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