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 Water for lab use must be free from
contaminants that could interfere with the
performance of tests.
 The quality of water required dependent on
the work carried out
 Water of an appropriate quality and quantity
is required for:

Stains and reagents
Reagents for clinical chemistry tests
Culture media and reagents used in microbiology
Reagents used in haematology and blood
transfusion work

lancets and equipment components. plasticware. eg cuvettes  Methods used to obtain water of adequate purity and quantity:    Distillation Deionization Filtration using a gravity filter and reusable ceramic filter of 0. needles. syringes.Cont  The rinsing of cleaned glassware.9 m porosity 3 .

Cont  Distilled or deionized water of ISO grade 3 is recommended for analytical work  For staining procedures it may be possible to use filtered water without deionization 4 .

G. P-Poor 5 . filtration and deionization Dissolved Ionized solid Dissolved Organics Dissolved ionized Gases Particulates Bacteria Pyrogen distillation filtration deionization E/G P E G P P P P E E E E E/G E P P P P E-Excellent .Effectiveness of distillation.Good.

Distillation  In distillation. carbon dioxide and chlorine  Distilled water is clear. colourless and odourless  Water contains only the condensed steam and distillate is collected into clean sterile container  The water is pyrogen free 6 . impure water is boiled and the steam produced is condensed on a cold surface (condenser) to give chemically pure distilled water  Does not remove dissolved ionized gases such as ammonia.

Water Distiller 7 .

Water distiller 8 .

Water distiller 9 .

Water distiller  A considerable volume of running water is required to operate a distiller  Usually not less than 60 litre/hour to condense the steam  The water feeding the distiller must not be heavily contaminated 1 .

Water distiller specification  Water is single distilled with an output of 4 litres/hour from a 3 kW heater  Built-in safety thermostat  Requires a running water supply of minimum flow 60 litres/hour (not heavily contaminated)  Can be cleaned and descaled without being dismantled 1 .

Do not waste the water by allowing the container to overfill 1 .Use and care  Read carefully manufacturer’s instructions. cleaning and care of the still. Prepare a stock card and written SOPs covering the use.  Ensure there is a sufficient supply of cool running water to feed the condenser  Do not allow the boiler to run dry  Collect the distilled water in a clean glass or plastic container previously rinsed with fresh distilled water.

If the water feeding the still is hard.  Regularly clean the still. the still will require frequent descaling as recommended by the manufacturer. Replace the damaged part. Keep the container capped. 1 .Use and care  Avoid storing the distilled water for more than a few days.  Do not use a still if any of the glass components appear cracked.

impure water is passed through anion and cation exchange resins to produce ion free water.  Has low electrical conductivity.Deionization  In deionization. near pH and free from water soluble salts but is NOT pyrogen free or sterile  Water should be filtered prior to deionization process  Use of unfiltered water will lead to rapid contamination and exhaustion of the resins 1 .

Deionization 1 .

Mg++. Na+.Deionization  The process of deionization uses two resins that are opposite in charges – the cationic (negative) and the anionic (positive).) and releases an equivalent amount of hydrogen (H+) ions.  This resin will attract the positively charged ions in the water (Ca++. etc.  The cationic resin is typically made from styrene containing negatively charged sulfonic acid groups. and will be pre-charged with hydrogen ions. 1 .

= HOH or H2O. SO4--. H+ + OH.  This resin will attract the negatively charged ions (HCO3-. and will be pre-charged with hydroxide ions.Deionization  anionic resin is also made from styrene. but contains positively charged quaternary ammonium groups. Cl-. 1 . etc.) and releases an equivalent amount of hydroxide (OH-).  The hydrogen and hydroxide ions then combine to form water.

Deionization 1 .

Deionization 1 .

the more pure the yielding water will be 2 .  In other words. so running the DI water through a second cycle will provide for additional purification.Deionization  Single deionization cycle may not remove all the TDS  Some of the ions will not be attracted by the resins. the more you run the deionized water through.

 It takes 1 hour to obatin 4-5 litres of distilled water  If water is allowed to pass rapidly. it form a channel through or down the side of resin instead of passing evenly through the entire resin bed.Deionization  For satisfactory deionization the water must pass through the resin column slowly and evenly.  Uneven passage of water indicated by the resin changing colour unevenly down one side of the column 2 .

airtight plastic bag or tin 2 .Deionizer resins  To maximize the life of the resin the following are important:   Keep the deionizer tube out of sunlight to avoid inactivating the indicator When not in use. sealed. remove the deionizer tube and store it in dark place • This will protect the indicator and minimize contamination of the resin column.   When 1st used after storage. discard the water passing through the column for the first 5 minutes Keep unused resin in an opaque.

Deionizer resins  Can cause irritation if it is allowed to enter the eye or skin  Must wear gloves and protective eye goggles when filling the plastic tube  Resin beads are insoluble in water  Store the resin below 50° C away from nitric acid and strong oxidizers 2 .

Use and care  Read carefully manufacturer’s instructions. the deionizer should be fed with clean rain water or filtered water 2 . Prepare a stock card and written SOPs covering the use. cleaning and care of the water deionizer  Check water purity mater to ensure that the resin is fully active and producing chemically pure water  The resin will become rapidly exhausted if water with high chemical concentration is routinely used  Where tap water is of poor quality.

Filtration  When using a gravity water filter fitted with a ceramic candle filter with 0. parasitic microorganisms and suspended particles can be removed from the water but not dissolved salts Cut-away showing Bacteria Trapped on Outer Wall of the Ceramic Simple Cleaning 2 .9 m porosity  Most bacteria.

Thank you 2 .