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# The Excel Spreadsheet

A spreadsheet originally existed in the physical world as a piece of paper that you could actually write on. These paper spreadsheets were used mainly by Accountants to help organize data in a logical and easy to view manner. However, the spreadsheets of the Information Age reside on your computer, though they still have the basic form of the old spreadsheets.

This lesson will teach you about the different elements that make up a spreadsheet, including some vocabulary so that you can understand the following lessons.

**The Spreadsheet, The Container
**

y

The spreadsheet (or worksheet) contains or will contain all the data that you enter. When you start up Excel, you should be greeted with a blank spreadsheet like the one we have below.

**Parts of the Spreadsheet
**

y Nearly every part of the spreadsheet has its own term and it is quite

useful to know your spreadsheet vocabulary to make using Excel that much easier. There are three basic parts of an Excel Spreadsheet:

y Column - The vertical segments that you see on the spreadsheet are

called columns.

y Row - The horizontal segments are referred to as rows. y Cell - Each box that is created from a row and column intersecting is

referred to as a cell.

There are all very important terms, so we will now be going into greater depth on exactly what they are.

Excel Columns

y Each vertical segment of the spreadsheet is referred to as a

column. Here is the "A" column.

y Excel uses letters to represent columns and numbers to represent

rows. This may be a little confusing at first, but with practice and a little effort this will become second nature to you.

Excel Rows

y The horizontal segments, those that run left-to-right, are referred to as rows. Here is row "1".

y Once again, Excel uses numbers to label rows.

Excel Cells

Now that you understand columns and rows you can grasp the labeling system for cells. When a column and a row intersect they form a cell. The very first cell, where column A and row 1 intersect is referred to as A1. It seems that the column label always comes first and the row second. Try to remember that! Here's a picture of Cell A1:

Excel Cells

If you are ever having trouble trying to find a cell, we recommend the following technique (we use cell G13 as an example):

y Find the column on the column bar by looking for the letter of the cell

(in this case that would be G).

Excel Cells

y Find the row on the row bar by looking for the number of the cell (in this case that would be 13).

After you have found both the column and the row trace an invisible line from each to the cell where they intersect and click there if you wish to enter data.

**Excel Basics: Create a New File
**

y Before you can start learning to use Excel, you need to create a new workbook that will store your data. To create a new Excel workbook follow these steps: 1. Open Microsoft Excel 2. With the mouse, go to the Excel menu bar and left-click the File menu

3. 4.

Within the File menu find and left-click New There should now be a New Workbook pane on the right side of your Excel program

5.

Left-click Blank Workbook to create a new workbook

**Excel Basics: Save a New File
**

y Saving frequently, especially after major changes, is a very important practice you should pick up. Lucky for you, saving in Excel takes only a second and in time you'll probably be doing it without any thought! 1. 2. 3.

Add some data to your currently blank spreadsheet On the keyboard push Ctrl + S (press and hold the control key then push S key while still holding down control) to save your work! If this is the first time saving the current file then you will be greeted with a Save As popup

**Save a New File
**

4. At the bottom of this popup is a field labeled File name and currently contains the text "Book1.xls". Replace this with any name you want to give your file, we have chosen "TizagBasics" for this example

**Save a New File
**

5.

Before you press Save, pay attention to where you are saving your file to. The default location Excel saves to is the My Documents folder and we suggest you save there if you are not very comfortable with navigating the Windows File System.

Pushing Ctrl + S will just save your file after you have specified a filename in step 5. We recommend that you save your file at least every 5 minutes. It only takes a second and just think how happy you'll be if your computer crashes or the power goes out and you won't have to worry about losing information!

Remember, use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + S often!

**Excel Basics: Open an Existing File
**

Now that we have a saved file we can attempt to open an existing file. If you name your file the same as we did then we're going to have a scavenger hunt for the file named "TizagBasics.xls". To open a file in Excel just follow these three steps:

1. 2. 3.

Go to the Excel menu bar and left-click the File menu Within the File menu find and click the Open choice If this is the first time saving the current file then you will be greeted with a Open popup

4. 5.

You should currently be in the "My Documents" folder, if not please navigate there. Find your file and double-click the file to open it.

**Excel Basics: Close a File
**

There are two options for closing your Excel file. You can close your file but keep Excel open or you can close your file along with Excel. To only close your file follow these steps:

1. 2.

Click the lower of the two X's that appear in the top right. If you have made any changes to your file you will be prompted to save before you quit, you should do so.

To close both your file and Excel follow these steps: 1. Click the upper X that appears in the top right. Notice that this X rests on a raised gray square. 2. If you have made any changes to your file you will be prompted to save before you quit, you should do so.

**Excel Basics: Undo Changes
**

y This could quite possible be the greatest invention man has ever

created! The ability to undo a mistake without having to start over! If you're like me, you make more than your fair share of mistakes, especially early in the morning. In Excel there is a quick and easy shortcut to undo mistakes. Make a bunch of mistake in your Excel spreadsheet (this may be easier for some) Using the keyboard press Ctrl + Z (press and hold the control key and press the Z key while still holding down control) Notice that your last change was just undone! Continue to press Ctrl + Z until all your mistakes have been undone Ctrl + Z. Be careful though, it goes quite fast when you hold it down!

1. 2. 3. 4.

y For undoing a lot of mistakes just hold down the keyboard shortcut

**Excel Basics: Redo Changes
**

y Chances are you will accidentally undo something that was

not a mistake sometime while using Excel. Good thing there's an undo for undo, aptly referred to as redo. To reverse your undo follow these steps:

Undo something you don't want to undo Using the keyboard press Ctrl + Y (press and hold the control key and press the Y key while still holding down control) 3. Notice that your last undo was just reverted! 4. Continue to press Ctrl + Y until all your accidental undos have been "redone".

1. 2.

Excel Sort

Sorting in Excel lets you easily reorder your data based on the type of sorting that you choose. This lesson will show you how to do a normal and reverse alphabetical sort, as well as descending numerical ordering.

**Raw Unordered Data
**

y Imagine that you were teaching an English class and just collected the homework

assignment for that day. The papers are in no special order, but you know that Excel can sort it all out for you anyways. You plough through the jumble of papers and enter the data into Excel, ending up with something that looks like...

y With the data enetered you are now ready to begin sorting in Excel.

**Excel Sorting: Alphabetical Order (Ascending)
**

y The most common type of sorting, and one that is

applicable to our situation, is alphabetical ordering. This kind of ordering places the cells that start with the early letters of the alphabet (a, b, c...) at the top and the later letters (t, u, v...) at the bottom of the list.

1.

2.

First we need to select all the data so we can begin to sort it. Because each name has a corresponding score we need to select both columns to preserve the students' correct scores. Left-click and hold on cell A1 then drag down-right to cell B10 to highlight all the data for sorting! Your spreadsheet should look like this:

y Left-click the "sort ascending" button, located near the top, on the shortcut bar (it has a blue A on top and a red Z on bottom with a downward pointing arrow).

y Your spreadsheet should now be sorted.

y Notice that your column titles (Name and Score) have not been included for sorting because Excel is smart enough to know that you do not want these special cells (A1 and B1) included.

**Reverse Alphabetical Order (Descending)
**

y The steps for reverse alphabetical order are the same as above, except that you need to

click the "sort descending" button instead. 1. Select the data you wish to sort (left-click in cell A1 and drag down-right to B10)

y Left-click the "sort descending" button, located near the top, on the shortcut bar (it has a

red Z on top and a blue A on bottom downward pointing arrow).

y Your spreadsheet should now be sorted in reverse alphabetical order.

Numerical Ordering

y If you wanted to instead sort the homework assignments by highest to lowest score you

would follow these steps to use Excel's numeric sorting. The only difference between this example and our previous examples is which column you start your selection from, so pay close attention to the first step! y Left-click cell B1 and drag down-left to cell A10

y Left-click the "sort descending" button, located near the top, on the

shortcut bar (it has a red Z on top and a blue A on bottom with a downward pointing arrow).

y Your Excel data should now look like:

y Congratulations, you now know how to sort columns of both numbers and

words in Excel!

**Generic Formatting in Excel
**

y Sometimes you don't have the data set up nice and orderly

like our above examples, which might make using Excel's quick sort buttons to fall flat on their face when attempting to sort your data. If you would like to access Excel's manual, and much more powerful, sorting option simply select "Data < Sort..." from the menu bar.

y Note: Be sure that you select your data before going to the

manual sorting feature. This will let Excel know which data you want to sort.

Excel Keyboard Shortcuts

**Excel Keyboard Shortcuts
**

When you are first getting used to Excel you will probably be focused on just getting your task done rather than learning how to work more efficiently. However, when you are ready to learn about the Excel keyboard shortcuts this lesson will teach you the most important and useful Excel shortcuts currently available.

y The benefits of using a keyboard shortcut are twofold: y It is quicker to keep your hand on the keyboard then shift

from keyboard to mouse to keyboard y You will experience less stress on your muscles if you shift your hands less y We have divided the keyboard shortcuts into related areas. This way you can focus on learning a group of shortcuts at a time, rather than all at once! y Shortcut Help: Combination keyboard shortcuts, those that have a plus (i.e. Ctrl + S), require that you hold the first key (Control) then press the second key (S) while still holding down the first key.

**Excel Shortcuts: Files
**

This small group of shortcuts is useful for opening, closing and saving your Excel workbooks.

y Ctrl+S: Save your Excel workbook y Ctrl+O: Open an existing Excel workbook y Ctrl+N: Create a new Excel workbook

**Excel Shortcuts: Editing
**

These are common shortcuts you will use to edit your Excel workbook. Our favorite shortcut in this list is, quite obviously, Ctrl+Z.

y Ctrl+C: Copy the current selection to the clipboard. After you copy something, you can paste it with the paste shortcut. y Ctrl+V: Paste the current item from the clipboard. y Ctrl+X: Cut the current selection and place it on the clipboard, which can be pasted. The difference between cut and copy is that cut will delete your selection, while copy will not. y Ctrl+Z: Undo your last change. This is can be repeated to remove again and again to undo many changes. y Ctrl+Y: Redo your last Undo. This only is available if you have just issued an Undo command. y Backspace: Deletes the current cell and enters edit mode for that cell. This will only delete one cell and not a selection. y Delete: Deletes the current selection. Use the delete key when you want to delete more than one cell at a time.

**Excel Shortcuts: Getting Around
**

These shortcuts will help you move around your Excel workbooks and worksheets with great ease!

y Page Up: Move one page up in your worksheet y Page Down: Move one page down in your worksheet. Note: The number of rows moved in both page up and page down depend on how many rows are currently displayed. The more rows you have displayed the greater amount the row jump will be when you do a page up/down. y Ctrl+Home: Move to the beginning of your worksheet y Ctrl+End: Move to the end of your worksheet y Tab: Move right one column y Shift+Tab: Move left one column y Ctrl+Page Up: Go back one worksheet y Ctrl+Page Down: Go forward one worksheet. Note: If you are not using multiple worksheets in your workbook you will probably not use this shortcut!

**Excel Shortcuts: Formatting
**

These shortcuts will help you quickly format your data.

y Ctrl+B: Toggles bold on and off for your selection y Ctrl+I: Toggles italic on and off for your selection y Ctrl+U: Toggles underline on and off for your selection y Ctrl+1: Opens up the Format Cell popup

**Excel Shortcuts: Menu
**

These shortcuts allow you to active the various options on the menu bar without have to mouse-click them. Note: These shortcuts use Alt as their combination key.

y y y y y y y y

Alt+F: Accesses the File menu Alt+E: Accesses the Edit menu Alt+V: Accesses the View menu Alt+I: Accesses the Insert menu Alt+T: Accesses the Tools menu Alt+D: Accesses the Data menu Alt+W: Accesses the Window menu Alt+H: Accesses the Help menu After you have used one of these shortcuts you can use the arrow keys to navigate the menu choices and use the Enter key to select a choice.

**Excel Shortcuts: Selecting
**

These shortcuts help you to quickly select items in your Excel file in various ways.

y Shift+Spacebar: Select the current Row y Ctrl+Spacebar: Select the current column y Ctrl+A: Select All, will select everything on the current worksheet. This is most often used in conjunction with the copy shortcut.

**Excel Shortcuts: Miscellaneous
**

And the two black sheep of the shortcut essentials:

y F1: Opens up the quick help feature y Ctrl+P: Print your worksheet

Excel 2007 Formula

**Excel 2007 Formula: A foundation to start writing a formula!
**

y A formula is an equation that performs operations on

worksheet data. You can use an Excel 2007 formula to perform mathematical operations, such as addition and multiplication, or they can compare worksheet values, join text, averaging a student's test results, etc.

y Formulas can refer to other cells on the same worksheet,

cells on other sheets in the same workbook, or cells on sheets in other workbooks. In addition, if you change the data in your spreadsheet, Excel will automatically recalculate the answer without you having to re-enter the formula.

y A basic formula format will start with an equals sign (=) followed by one or more operands, separated by one or more operators. Operands can be values, text, cell references, ranges, defined names, or function names. Operators are symbols used to represent the various arithmetic and comparison operations you can perform on the operands.

In Microsoft Excel 2007, operators are executed in this order:

**To enter a formula
**

y Place the cursor in the cell where the formula will appear, i.e.E5. y Enter an = sign. All Excel formulas start with the equal sign. y Enter the expression that will produce the result you want. This can

consist of operands, values, variables, and symbols which represent mathematical procedures such as + or to add and subtract, e.g. A5+C5. y When the formula is complete, press Enter. The result of the formula will be calculated and displayed in the cell E5. y You can see the formula in the Formula bar at the top of the screen by placing the cell pointer on the cell E5.

y If there is an error in a formula, an error message is displayed which

will begin with a # sign.

**To know the formula error messages
**

y When writing formulas it is easy to make a mistake. Here are some

common mistakes:

**To enter a cell or range reference by pointing
**

y Place the cursor in the cell where the formula will appear. y Enter the formula up to the point of the cell or range reference, y

y y

y

e.g. to enter the formula =E2+E5, only enter the = sign. Using the arrow keys, move the cell pointer to the first cell reference, in this case E2. The formula will track your progress and enter the current address into the formula. Enter the operand, + sign. Using the arrow keys, move the cell pointer to the second cell reference, in this case E5. If you are calculating a range of cells, hold down the Shift key while using the arrow keys to move to the intended cells. Press Enter to complete the formula when you have reached the cell you require.

Excel Formulas

y A forumla is nothing more than an equation that you write

up. In Excel a typical formula might contain cells, constants, and even functions. Here is an example Excel formula that we have labeled for your understanding. =B3 * 5 / SUM(B4:B7)

y cell(s): B3 and the range of cells from B4:B7 y constant(s): 5 y function(s): SUM()

**Creating Your First Formula
**

This first formula will be as simple as they come and will teach you the basic form of an Excel formula. Create a new spreadsheet and then follow these steps:

y Select cell A1 y Type the following basic arithmetic formula into cell A1:

=1+1

y Press Enter and notice how cell A1 changes from your formula to

the result!

y This may seem simple, but there are a some very important

things you should get out of this example. When you start off a cell entry with the equal sign "=" you are telling Excel that you want it to evaluate the following formula. y In our case we had a simple "1+1" we wanted Excel to solve for us. You can do this for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and any other operation you can think of. Remember, if you do not start your entry with the equal sign, then Excel will not evaluate the cell!

**Using Cells to Create Dynamic Formulas
**

The most powerful aspect of Excel is not the simple calculator abilities we describes in our first formula example, but rather the ability to take values from cells to be used in your formulas.

y Let's set up a basic sales spreadsheet to help explain this topic. y In cells A1-D4 enter the following information:

y Notice: that cell D2 and D3 are blank, but should contain the amount of money from

selling 150 candy items and 3 vegetables. By referencing the Quantity and Price cells we will be able to do this! Let's begin with Candy.

y Note:It is very important to follow these steps exactly without interruptions! Select cell

**D2, candy's "revenue", and type the equal sign "=" to begin your formula.
**

y Left-click on cell B2, Candy's Quantity and notice your formula is now "=B2"

y We want to multiply Quanity(B2) by Price(B3) so enter an asterisk (*)

y Now left-click on Candy's Price (C2)to complete your formula!

y If your formula looks like ours then press Enter, otherwise you can manually enter the formula "=B2*C2". However, we really think it is easier and preferred to click on cells to reference them, instead of entering that information manually. y After you pressed Enter your Candy Revenue cell should be functioning properly and contain the value 75.

y Using your newly gained knowledge please complete Vegetable's Revenue by repeating steps 2-7 for Vegetable y Your spreadsheet should now look like this:

y Cheatsheet: If you are having trouble creating the formula for Vegetable's Revenue it is "=B3*C3"

**Advanced Excel Formulas: Using Formulas in Formulas
**

y y y y y

Now that we have created separate revenues for both Candy and Vegetable it would be nice to somehow combine these two values to get the Total Revenue. Although both Vegetable Revenue and Candy Revenue contain formulas, we can still use these cells as we have been doing and add them together to get our total.

Select cell D5 (directly below "Total") Type the equal sign "=" Left-click cell D2 Type the plus sign "+" Left-click cell D3. Cell D5 should now contain this formula "=D2+D3":

y Press Enter to complete your Total Revenue!

**Excel 2007 Functions: An Introduction
**

Excel 2007 Functions are build-in, special commands that incorporated into the formulas to perform mathematical calculations. It can be used to make complex operations simple. Excel 2007 contains a build-in list of worksheet functions, which are categorised to make it easy to search for the ones you need.

y Functions are special commands used in formulas to perform mathematical processes.

y Excel has over 300 built-in functions divided into various

**function categories, including:
**

y y y y y y y y y y y

Financial Logical Text Date & Time Lookup & Reference Math & Trigonometry Information Database Statistical Engineering Cube

y Here are some commonly used functions: AVERAGE: Used to determine the average value of the selected cells contents. COLUMNS: Used to return the number of columns within a reference. COUNT: Used to count how many numbers are in the list. MAX: Used to return the maximum number from a list. MIN: Used to return the minimum number from a list. ROUND: Used to round off numbers to a specified number of decimal points. SUM: Used to add the contents of selected cells.

**To display all the available functions
**

y Open a blank Excel workbookClick on the Formulas tab and within the Function Library group click on the Insert Function icon.

y From the Insert Function dialog box displayed, under Or select a category: section, select a particular category function, the related functions will displayed.

**To enter functions directly into the worksheet cell
**

y Select the cell into which the formula will be entered. y Insert an equal (=) sign to begin the formula. The formula toolbar buttons will appear. y Enter the name of the function [e.g. SUM], followed by an opening parenthesis [(], any arguments required for the function [e.g. E2:E5], and closing parenthesis[)]. y Press Enter. If there are no errors in the formula, the result of the function will be entered in the cell. If you activate the cell again, the function will be displayed in the formula bar.

**To use the AutoSum function
**

y The functions can be accessed through the AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar. y The functions included in the AutoSum drop-down menu will insert the function and predict the arguments. y For example, if the active cell is positioned at the bottom of the list of values, AutoSum will display a sum function with the list of the arguments.

y Sum -- add the contents of the list of arguments. y Average -- determine the average value of the list of arguments. y Count -- count the number of values in the list of arguments. y Max -- return the maximum number in the list of arguments. y Min -- return the minimum number in the list of arguments

**Example: Using the Average function
**

y Enter the values as shown below from B1 to B5 and select the cell B6 which the formula will be entered.

y From the Insert Function dialog box displayed, under Or select a category: section, select a particular category function, the related functions will displayed.

y Click the down arrow beside the AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar and choose Average from the dropdown menu. y If the predicted range is correct, press the Enter key. If it is incorrect, select (click and drag) the range you want with the mouse and press theEnter key. y The result will show in cell B6. You can use the same method to do other functions such as SUM, Max, etc.

Note: Excel formula and function is one of the most powerful feature in Microsoft Excel.