DEPRESSION

Group Members
Arslan Ahmed  Adeel Hussain  Maryam Manzoor  Taimour Masood  Muhammad Usman  Kanwal Nawaz 

Depression - What is it? 

Depression is a condition that can take many forms, from the short lived feelings of sadness that most of us suffer in response to disappointments of everyday life, right up to severe depressive disorders which require treatment.

DEPRESSION IN THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY 

In the fields of psychology and psychiatry, the terms depression or depressed refer to both expected and pathologically chronic or severe levels of sadness, perceived helplessness, disinterest, and other related emotions and behaviours.

BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES 

Biological influences of depression are varied, but can include heredity, hormones, life problems, seasonal factors, stress, illness, neurotransmitter malfunction.

Depressive illness 

A depressive illness is an overwhelming feeling which dulls thinking, impairs concentration, saps energy, interest in food, sex, work and everyday activities and disrupts sleep.

Depression - The Different Types

‡ Unipolar or Endogenous Depression: 

While this is primarily a biological or inherited condition, disappointment will often provoke its onset. There is extreme tiredness, slowed thinking, impaired concentration, waking during the night and tending to feel worse in the early morning.

Other Types of Depressive Categories 

Post Partum Depression ± Major depressive episode that occurs after having a baby. Depressive symptoms usually begin within four weeks of giving birth and can vary in intensity and duration.

Situational Depression or Reactive Depression 

Depressive symptoms developing in response to a specific stressful situation or event (e.g. job loss, relationship ending).

SYMPTOMS

SYMPTOMS
Hopelessness  Increased irritability, anger, or hostility  Low self esteem  Withdrawal  Loss of appetite or constant hunger  Alcohol or drug abuse 

SYMPTOMS 
   

Self injury Discussion or thoughts of suicide Feelings of guilt Inability to concentrate Difficulty with relationships

DEPRESSION IN WOMEN

Depression symptoms in women
‡ Depression in winter due to lower level of sunlight ‡ Sleep excessively ‡ Eat more specially carbohydrates ‡ They had more thyroid problem

Causes of depression in women 
 

Biological causes Social and cultural causes Psychological causes

Biological causes of depression in women 

The biological cause of depression in women is mainly due to hormonal changes and hormonal fluctuations in different time periods.

Social and cultural causes of depression in women 
   

Unequal power and status Sexual and physical abuse Relation dissatisfaction Poverty Role strain(wife,mother,wor king women)

Psychological causes of depression in women
Copying mechanism: Women cry rather than try to figure out why they are depressed. They even don¶t talk to their friends and don¶t try to diverge their attention from depression

Ratio of depression in male and female

Causes of Depression in Male

depression is often an expression that is not heard or approached as often as women¶s depression. Despite what many think, male depression has several different causes and effects that are different from women¶s depression. of the standards set by society, as well as men¶s reaction to the symptoms of depression, male depression is known to be very different than that of women¶s depression 
Because 

Male

to man can occur from different directions such as marriage, job work over load, pay issues, rising prices of consumer goods etc. of the causes of male depression and stress arise from their self nurtured identities, especially related to their professional status. 
Much 

Depressions

Some research suggests that for men, job-related stress may also play an important role in male depression. Some job characteristics that may be associated with male depression include: of control over your responsibilities Unreasonable demands for performance Conflicts with supervisors or coworkers Lack of job security Night-shift work Excessive overtime 
Lack

Treatment for depression

WHO Report 

Report predicts that depression will be the leading cause of disability and premature death by the year 2020. Without treatment, ten to fifteen percent of people suffering from this illness commit suicide.

Types Of Treatments
Psychotherapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Interpersonal therapy (IPT) 


Medical Therapies:

Psychotherapy 

Psychotherapy is known as "talk therapy," which can be very helpfull for people with some forms of depression

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) 

Helps to reduce depression symptoms by challenging and reversing negative beliefs and attitudes

Interpersonal therapy (IPT) 

Helps facilitate the resolution of role disputes and helps to overcome problems with social skills and other interpersonal factors that may impact the development of depression.

Medical Therapies: 

Prescription Medications (Antidepressant) SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)

Antidepressant

An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used for alleviating major depression or dysthymia ('milder' depression).

Serotonin
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that conveys the positive sensations of satiety, satisfaction and relaxation. It regulates appetite and when converted to melatonin helps us to sleep.

DEPRESSION DUE TO TERRORISM IN NATION

Before

After

DESTRUCTION

BEGINNING OF ARMS RACE

DEJECTION FOR LOSS 

LOSS

OF LIFE AND PROPERTY 

Internal strife 

Suicide Bombings

MILITARY OPERATION IN COUNTRY 

The

support provided to coalition

forces 

MAKING PAKISTAN A UN SAFE PLACE TO LIVE

Nati

al

s

s

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