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Power Quality

Disturbances

Voltage Sag
Voltage Swell
Interruptions

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Aditi Kanjolia
1200202

Categorisation based on
duration
These three are categorised on the basis
of duration-

Short duration rms variations


Long-duration rms variations

Short duration rms variations ( < 1 min)

Long-duration rms variations


--sustained interruptions ( > 1 min)

Voltage Sag

One of the most common power quality


problems.

A sag is a decrease in rms voltage to


between 0.1 pu and 0.9 pu for durations
from 0.5 cycles to 1 min.

Sag durations are subdivided into three


categories (instantaneous, momentary, and
temporary)

Flicker+
Transient+
Harmonic

Sag+
harmonic+
Transient

Harmonic+
Inter-harmonic

Swell+Flicke
r+ Transient

Combination
3
Disturbances
Sag+Flicke
r+
Transient
Swell+
harmonic+
Transient

Swell+
Harmonic
+Flicker
Sag+
Harmonic
+Flicker

Sag
Swell

Transient

Flicker

Single Disturbances

Interrup
t

Harmonic
s

Spike

Notch

Transient+Harmonic

Sag+Harmoni
c
Sag+Flicker
Swell+Flicke
r

Combination of
2
Disturbances

Swell+Harmoni
c

Sag+Transien
t
Swell+Transient

Interrupt+Transient

Fig- Instantaneous voltage sag SLG fault

Characteristics
Depth / Magnitude
Duration
Overshoot after sag
Phase Angle Jump voltage is afterall
complex. Not generally a problem but
matters when we are considering power
electronics converters for eg.
During-sag voltage contains a rather large
amount of higher frequency
components.

Causes of Voltage Sags


usually associated with system faults like
short -circuits
switching heavy loads or starting large
motors
A fault on a parallel feeder circuit will result
in a voltage drop at the substation bus,
which affects all of the other feeders until
the fault is cleared
Bad Weather thunderstorms and lightning.

Fig- Voltage Sag

Fig In terms of rms


voltage

Another classification :
Multi Phase Sags and Single Phase Sags

Single Phase Sags > 70 % cases


lightning strikes, tree branches, animal contact etc

Phase to Phase Sags like earlier but The two


phase voltage sag will typically appear on other
feeders from the same substation.

3 Phase Sags- < 20% either by switching or


tripping of a 3 phase circuit breaker, switch or
recloser which will create a 3 phase voltage sag on
other lines fed from the same substation
also be caused by starting large motors

Occurence

Utility Systems-

@ transmission systems - due to lighting , construction


or transportation accidents.

@ distribution systems -Similar to the transmission


system causes, weather (lightning, wind, ice), animal
contact, contamination of insulators, construction
accidents, motor vehicle accidents, falling or contact with
tree limbs can result in voltage sags
o

At facility ( consumer level )- These sags are typically


caused by starting large motors or by electrical faults
inside the facility.

Impact

Affects several equipments like adjustable- speed drives,


process-control equipment and computers are notorious
for their sensitivity

Computer lockups, Even relays and contactors in motor


starters

On Production - Both single phase and multiphase


voltage sags can cause unplanned production stoppages.

Single phase - control devices and electronic sensors can


be very vulnerable to voltage sags.

Voltage Swell

A swell is an increase in rms voltage above


1.1 pu to 1.8 pu for durations from 0.5 cycle
to 1 min. Typical Magnitudes are between
1.1 pu and 1.2 pu.

Less frequent then sags, but more


damaging. Are gradual, accumulative and
hence noticeable.

Sag for about > 3 sec light output


affected.

Figure Rms variations and instantaneous values

Causes
System faults
Swells can also be caused by switching off a
large load, load shedding, or
switching on a large capacitor bank.
Due to single phase to ground fault in
ungrounded condn

Impacts

breakdown of components on the power


supplies of the equipment due to over
voltage

The increase in output from incandescent


lighting may be noticeable, if the duration is
longer than three cycles.

Interruptions- Long And


Short
-Origin of Long & Short interruption
- Influence on various equipments

Only duration is measured since the voltage


magnitude is always less than 10% of nominal.

Fig-Momentary interruption due to fault and


subsequent recloser operation

Classifications

Short duration variations


Momentary Interruption < 1 min , <0.1 pu
Temporary Interruption < 1 min , <0.1 pu

Long duration variations


Interruption, sustained > 1 min , 0.0 pu

Parameters of Interruptions

Interruption time = time of power supply


return moment of interrution

Interrruption frequency = number of


interruption/ reference time

Relative amplitude

Causes / Origin
Can be scheduled or accidental.
-scheduled, the customers are announced
before doing any programmed actions into
the distribution Network
-accidentals
power system faults
equipment failures
control system malfunctions
.

Duration of Interruption

Duration of the interruption depends on the


reclosing capability of the protective device.

The duration of an interruption can be irregular due


to equipment malfunctions or loose connections.

Eg- Delayed reclosing of the protective device may


cause a momentary or temporary interruption
whereas Instantaneous reclosing generally will limit
the interruption caused by a nonpermanent fault to
less than 30 cycles.

Impacts
In an industrial environment, disruption in
production by increasing the number of
reject or material wastage, adding to
substantial additional costs.
Stoppage of sensitive equipment (i.e.
computers, PLC, ASD)
Unnecessary tripping of protective devices
Loss of data
Malfunction of data processing equipment.

Thank You.