Prof.Hansa Shingrakhia
Image
Video
x(t )
see
x(n)
analog signal
A continuoustime signal with a continuous amplitude
quantizedboxcar signal
A continuoustime signal with a discretevalue amplitude
digital signal
Sampleddata signal
A discretetime signal with a continuous amplitude
random signal
A single that is generated in a random fashion and cannot be
predicted ahead of time.
x ( t ) x ( t kT )
x ( n) x ( n kN )
Aperiodic signal: A signal that extends to both positive and
negative infinity without repeating in a periodic pattern.
1
P lim
T T
x ( t ) dt
1
P lim
N N
N 1
x ( n)
n 0
energy signal
An finite energy signal with zero average power.
x ( t ) dt
E x ( n)
analog
PrF
ADC
DSP
DAC
PoF
waveform
example
return
Signal Analysis
Signal Filtering
Signalinsignalout, filter
Removal of noise/interference
Separation of frequency bands
Telecommunications
Multiplexing
Compression
Echo control
Audio Processing
Music
Speech generation
Speech recognition
Echo Location
Radar
Sonar
Reflection seismology
Image Processing
Medical
Space
Commercial Imaging Products
clarinet
brass
bell
return
I ( x, y)
I R ( x , y )
u( x , y ) I G ( x , y )
I G ( x , y )
return
I ( x, y, t )
I R ( x , y , t )
u( x , y , t ) I G ( x , y , t )
I B ( x , y , t )
return
1 1
0.9
1
1 0.9
0.8 0.8
0.9
0.9
0.7 0.7
0.8
0.8
0.6 0.6
0.7
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.6 0.6
0.4 0.4
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.4 0.4
0.2 0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2 0.2
0
0.10 0.1
0.1
0.1
0 0
0.2 0.2
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2 0.3
0.4 0.4
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.4 0
0.4 0
0.5 0.5
0 0
1 1
0.9 0.9
1
1 0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.7 0.7
0.8
0.8
0.6 0.6
0.7 0.7
0.5 0.5
0.6
0.6
0.4 0.4
0.5
0.5
0.3 0.3
0.4
0.4
0.2 0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1 0.1
0.20 0.2
0
0.1
0.1 0.1
0.1
0
0 0.2
0.2
0.1
0.3 0.1
0.3
0.2
0.4 0.2
0.4
0.3 0.3
0.4 0
0.4 0
10 10
10 10
10 10
20 20
20 20
20 20
30 30
30 30
1 1
0.9
1 0.91
0.8 0.8
0.9
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.8 0.8
0.6 0.6
0.7
0.7
0.5
0.5
0.6 0.6
0.4 0.4
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.4 0.4
0.2 0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2 0.2
0
0.10 0.1
0.1
0.1
0 0
0.2 0.2
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.2 0.2
0.4 0.4
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.4 00.40
0.5 0.5
0 0
10 10
10 10
20 20
20 20
30 30
1 1
0.9 0.9
1 0.81
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.7 0.7
0.8
0.8
0.6 0.6
0.7 0.7
0.5 0.5
0.6
0.6
0.4 0.4
0.5
0.5
0.3 0.3
0.4
0.4
0.2 0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1 0.1
0.20 0.2
0
0.1
0.1 0.1
0.1
0 0.20
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.3 0.3
0.2
0.2
0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3
0.4 00.40
10 10
20 20
30 30
30 30
30 30
return
10
20
30
40
50
10
20
30
40
50
10
20
30
40
50
10
20
30
40
50
10
20
30
40
50
10
20
30
40
50
return
Original Image
Restored Image
Blurred Image
return
return
return
1, n 0
( n)
0, n 0
1, n n0
( n n0 )
0, n n0
1, n 0
u( n)
0, n 0
( n) u( n) u( n 1)
u( n) ( n m )
m 0
1, n n0
u( n n0 )
0, n n0
Rectangular sequence
1, 0 n N 1
RN ( n )
otherwise
0,
RN ( n) u( n) u( n N )
N 1
RN ( n) ( n m )
m 0
Sinusoidal sequence
x ( n) A cos( 0 n ),
A
0
amplitude
digital angular frequency
phase
x1 ( n) 1.5 cos(0.05 2 n)
x 2 ( n) 1.5 sin( 0.05 2 n)
x ( n) a , n; a R
n
The
The
x1 ( n) 0.001 1.2
x 2 ( n) 0.2 0.8 n
x ( n) e
( j 0 ) n
n
n
x( n) e cos 0 n je sin 0 n
x re ( n) jx im ( n)
Attenuation factor
x ( n ) 2e
1
( j )n
5 8
where N 1 , N 2
x ( n) n 2 ,
8 n 8
y( n) cos 0.4n
Rightsided sequence
Leftsided sequence
Twosided sequence
x ( n)
Example:
0.3 n ,
x( n)
0,
1
0.3
1.42857
1 0.3
n0
n
n0
n0
Squaresummable sequence
x( n)
Example:
sin 0.3n
x ( n)
n
Timeshifting operation
y( n) x ( n N )
where N is an integer
N 0 delaying operation
Unit delay
x (n)
z1
y( n) x ( n 1)
y( n) x ( n 1)
N 0 advance operation
Unit advance x (n)
Sequence shifts
Sequence x(n)
Delayed sequence
x(n3)
Advanced sequence
x(n+2)
y( n) x ( n)
Addition operation
Samplebysample addition
Adder
y ( n) x ( n) w ( n)
y ( n) x ( n) w ( n)
x (n)
w (n)
Examples
2
1.x(n) + y(n)
2.x(n) . y(n)
x(n)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2.0
1.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
4.x(n3)
5.y(n+2)
0.5
y(n)
3
n 0 1 2
3.2x(n) + 3y(n)
7
4 5 6
6.x(n)
0.5
2.0
Scaling operation
y( n) Ax ( n)
Multiplier
x (n)
y( n) Ax ( n)
modulator
y ( n) x ( n) w ( n)
x(n)
w (n)
Sample summation
n2
x ( n) x( n ) x ( n )
n n1
Sample production
n2
x ( n) x ( n ) x ( n )
n n1
Sequence energy
Ex
*
2
x
(
n
)
x
(
n
)

x
(
n
)

Sequence power
1
Px lim
N N
N 1
 x ( n) 
n 0
Any arbitrary sequence can be synthesized in the timedomain as a weighted sum of delayed (advanced) and
scaled unit sample sequence.
x ( n)
x(k ) (n k )
Even (symmetric): xe ( n) xe ( n)
Odd (antisymmetric): xo ( n) xo ( n)
Any arbitrary realvalued sequence can be
decomposed into its even and odd component:
x ( n) xe ( n) xo ( n)
1
xe ( n) [ x( n) x( n)]
2
1
xo ( n) [ x( n) x ( n)]
2
return
example
example
Linear System
Causal System
Stable System
if T [ x ( n)] y( n)
then T [ x ( n n0 )] y( n n0 )
Accumulator
y( n) LTI [ x ( n)]
example
h( n) 0,
n0
n0
if
x ( n) M , then y( n) P
h(n)
Output
y(n)
Impulse
Response
2x(n)
2y(n)
3x(n)
3y(n)
x(n)
y(n)
Linear system
superposition
x(0)h(n0)
x(n)
Input
x(1)h(n1)
Impulse
Response
x(2)h(n2)
y(n) = x(k)h(nk)
Output
Superposition of responses
Linearity allows
scaling of impulse
response for samples
of different amplitude
Superposition allows
adding responses of
delayed input
samples
Result is the
convolution of input
sequence and system
impulse response
Examples
y(n)
1. Cos[x(n)]
2
n 1
x(k )
3. x(n)cos(0n)
4. x(n+2)
5. Quant[x(n)]
6. x(n)+nx(n+1)
Static/
Linear/
Dynamic Nonlinear
Time
invariant/
time
varying
Causal/
Noncausal
Stable/
Unstable
Examples
Static/
Linear/
Dynamic Nonline
ar
Time
invaria
nt/ time
varying
Causal
/Noncausal
Stable/
Unstab
le
NL
TI
x(k )
TI
NC
US
3. x(n)cos(0n)
TV
4. x(n+2)
TI
NC
TV
NC
US
y(n)
1. Cos[x(n)]
2.
n 1
x(n)+nx(n+1)
y ( n) T
x(k ) (n k )
h1(n)
y(n)
x(n)
x(n)
h(n)=h1(n)+h2(n)
y(n)
h2(n)
x(n)
h1(n)
Cascaded
h2(n)
y(n)
x(n)
h1(n)*h2(n)
y(n)
x(n)
Z1
x(n)
h(0)
h(1)
Z1
Z1
x(n1)
x(n2)
X h(2)
h(k1)
Z1
x(nk)
x(nk1)
X
h(k)
X
y(n)
N 1
y ( n) h( k ) x ( n k )
k 0
Convolution Sum
R.N.Mutagi
Adders
Multiplie
rs
Memory
n
x(n
)
h(
n) 2
1
h(n)
2
1
4
2
1
5
4
2
1
5 2
4 5 2
2
1
4
2
1
5
4
2
1
y(n)
2
5
4
2
1
2
5
4
2
2
5
4
2
5
2
5
4
2
1
1
2
5
4
2
1
x(n)
2
4
4
8
10 20
8 16
4
8
2
4
5
10
25
20
10
5
Difference equation
yn a yn k bm xn m
(1)
or yn hk xn k h0 xn hk xn k
(2)
x1,n y1, n
predictionsof system ' sbehavior
x2,n y2, n
69
Homogeneous equation:
a
k 0
yn k 0
k 0
i 1
if 1 = 2, solution in form of
ELEN 5346/4304 DSP and Filter Design
Fall 2008
yh ,n c11n c2 n1n
Particular solution
We apply an input and see what happens to the output for large n
Assumption: yp,n has the same form as xn:
xn
yp,n
An M
k0 n M k1n M 1 K k M
cos 0 norsin 0 n
k1 cos 0 n k2 sin 0 n
cn
knc n
An n M
Ex.:
An (k0 n M k1n M 1 K k M )
5
1
1
yn 1 yn 2 xn xn 1 y1 6; y2 6; x1 1; xn 2n ,n 0
6
6
2
Characteristic equation:
yn
(2.5.1)
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0 01 ;2 yh, n c1 c2 ;n 0 formof solution
6
6
2
2
3
3
2
3
(2.5.2)
2
Example (cont)
yn
5
1
1
yn 1 yn 2 xn xn 1 y1 6; y2 6;x1 1; xn 2n ,n 0
6
6
2
n
Got so far:
yh , n
is LTI
n
1
1
c1 c2 ;n 0
2
3
y zi ,n
1
1
7.5 3 ;n 0
2
3
Sincexn c n 2n y p ,n kc n k 2n
5
1
1
10
1
k 2n k 2n 1 k 2n 2 2n 2 n 12n 2 4k k 2n 2 (4 1)
6
6
2
6
6
1
n
4
1
k
2
p ,n
n
1
1
Totalsolution : yn yh ,n y p ,n c1 c2
2
3
2 2n
72
4. Correlation
72
ELEN 5346/4304 DSP and Filter Design
Fall 2008
73
73
ELEN 5346/4304 DSP and Filter Design
Fall 2008
74
Autocorrelation
74
ELEN 5346/4304 DSP and Filter Design
Fall 2008
75
Correlation maxima
75
ELEN 5346/4304 DSP and Filter Design
Fall 2008
x(n)
y(n)=F{x(n),
y(n)=F{x(n),
x(n1),..,
x(n1),.., x(nM)}
y(n)
x(n)
y(n)=F{y(nN), ..,y(n1),
..,y(n1),
x(n), x(n1),.., x(nM
x(nM)}
Delay
y(n)
1 N
y ( n)
x(k ),
n 1 k 0
n 0,1,2,...
(n 1) y (n) x(k ),
n 0 ,1,2 ,...
k 0
N 1
x ( k ) x ( n)
y(n)
x(n)
1/(n+1)
k 0
ny (n 1) x(n)
n
n
y ( n)
y (n 1)
x ( n)
n 1
n 1
Z1
n
y(k+2)=y(k) + y(k+1)
Y(k+2) Y(k+1)
D
Y(k)
1
x ( n)
y (n) y (n 1)
2
y (n 1)
y(n) is the square root on nth iteration
y(n1 ) is the initial estimate of square root (guess)
x(n) is the number whose square root is sought
n
y(n)
y(n1)
x(n)/y(n1)
3/3=1
1.75
3/2=1.5
1.732142857 1.75
3/1.75=1.714
1.7320
3/1732143=1.732
1.732142857
Eigen functions
If a linear operator T transforms an input function x(n) in to
T [ x(n)] x(n)
d j t
Example : e e jt
dt
Complex exponential sequences are eigenfunctions of
LTI systems and the response to a sinusoidal input is a
sinusoidal with same frequency whose amplitude abd
phase are determined by the system
h( k )
j
H (e )
jk
h
[
k
]
e
d/dt
x ( n) e
j n
y ( n)
j ( n k )
h
(
k
)
e
jn
h[k ]e
k
H e j e j n
Eigenvalue H (e j ) is the frequency response
jk
Periodic
frequency
response of ideal
lowpass filter
Periodic ideal
highpass filter
1
j
jn
x[n]
X
(
e
)
e
d Synthesis equation IFT
X (e )
jn
x
[
n
]
e
Analysis equation FT
1
j
jn
H (e j ) h[n]e jn
transform
h[n]
H
(
e
)
e
d
IFT
FT
Periodic frequency
response
Impulse
response
xe [n] xe[n]
where
1
xe [n] x[n] x [n] and
2
1
xo [n] x[n] x [ n]
2
A real conjugate
symmetric sequence is
called even sequence
xe [n] xe [ n]
xo [n] xo [ n]
x[n]
0
x[n]
X ( e j ) X e ( e j ) X o ( e j )
1
where X e (e ) X (e j ) X (e j )
2
1
j
X e ( e ) X ( e j ) X ( e j )
2
j
X e e j X e e j
and
X o e j X o e j
Sequence x[n]
x*[n]
X*(ej)
x*[n]
X*(ej)
Re {x [n]}
Xe (ej)
Im {x [n]}
XR (ej)
jXI (ej)
XR (ej)=XR (ej)
XI (ej)=XI (ej)
X (ej)=X (ej)
xe[n]
XR (ej)
Magnitude is even
Phase is odd
1
y( n)
M
M 1
x( n k )
k 0
prove
h( n) n u( n)
prove
h( n) h( n)u( n)
h(n)
return
jwn
x
(
n
)
e
1
IDTFT: x ( n) IDTFT [ X ( e )]
2
jw
Existence condition:
 x ( n) 
X ( e jw )e jwndw
X (e j )
Time domain
Frequency domain
discrete
continuous
Real valued
Complexvalued
Summation
integral
~
The integral range of ~
The range of
It can be expressed as
X ( e j ) X ( e j ) e j ( )
X ( e j )
magnitude function
( )
phase function
example
X ( e ) X ( z ) z e j
x ( n)e
j n
ax ( n) by( n) aX (e j ) bY (e j )
Time
shifting
A shift in the time domain corresponds to the
phase shifting
x( n m ) e
j m
X (e )
shifting
jn 0
x ( n) X (e
j ( 0 )
Convolution
x1 ( n) x 2 ( n) X 1 (e ) X 2 (e )
jw
jw
1
x1 ( n) x 2 ( n)
2
Energy
X (e
) X 2 (e
(Parsevals Theorem)
1
x ( n)
2
n
2
X (e )
X (e ) d
j ( w )
)d
by an exponential sequence
1 j
a x ( n) X ( e )
a
n
Sequence
weighting
d
j
n x ( n) j
[ X ( e )]
d
x ( n ) X ( e j )
Folding
x ( n) X (e
Conjugation
and Folding
Conjugation and folding in the time domain corresponds
to the conjugation in the frequency domain
x ( n ) X ( e j )
return
xe ( n) xe ( n)
xe ( n) xe ( n)
( n) xo ( n)
xo ( n) xo ( n)
x ( n) xe ( n) xo ( n)
1
xe ( n) [ x( n) x ( n)]
2
1
xo ( n) [ x ( n) x ( n)]
2
X ( e j ) X e ( e j ) X o ( e j )
1
X e (e ) [ X (e j ) X (e j )]
2
1
j
X o (e ) [ X (e j ) X (e j )]
2
j
X e ( e ) X e ( e j )
X e ( e j ) X e ( e j )
conjugate antisymmetric
X o ( e ) X o ( e j )
X o ( e j ) X o ( e j )
Re[ x ( n)]
j Im[ x ( n)]
X e (e )
j
X o (e )
j
xe ( n)
Re[ X (e )]
xo ( n)
j Im[ X (e )]
X (e ) X (e
Re[ X (e )] Re[ X (e
j
Im[ X (e )] Im[ X (e
j
X (e ) X (e
j
)]
)]
arg[ X (e )] arg[ X (e
)]
example
x ( n) e
X (e
j 0 n
( n )
2 (
( 0 )
2i )
x ( n) 1
j
X (e )
( n )
2 ( 2i )
x ( n)
(n iN )
2
X (e )
N
j
2
(
k)
N
k
x~ ( n)
x( n iN ) x( n) ( n iN )
2
X (e )
N
j
X (e
2
k
N
2
) (
k)
N
2
~
X ( k ) (
k)
N
k
return
Difference equation
a
k 0
System function H (z )
y( n k ) bm x ( n m )
m 0
H ( z ) [h( n)]
h(n)z
Rx  z 
An LTI system is both stable and causal if and only if
the H(z) has all its poles inside the unit circle, i.e. the
ROC of H(z) is
1 z 
difference equation
a
k 0
y( n k ) bm x ( n m )
m 0
k 0
Y (z)
H (z)
X (z)
m 0
N
k
a
z
k
k 0
m 0
m
b
z
m
m
a
z
Y
(
z
)
b
z
k
m X (z)
k
1
(
1
c
z
)
m
m 1
N
1
(
1
d
z
)
k
k 1
H ( e j )
j n
h
(
n
)
e
H (e ) H (e ) e
j arg[ H ( e j )]
example
example
Group delays
d arg[ H (e j )]
g ( )
d
H (e j ) is a continuous function of
x ( n) e
j 0 n
H (e )
y( n) e
j 0 n
j 0
H (e
x(n)
H (e )
y(n)
x ( n) A cos( 0 n )
y( n) A  H (e
j 0
)  cos( 0 n arg[ H (e
j 0
)])
x( n) Ak cos( k n k )
k
x(n)
H (e j ), h( n)
y( n) x ( n) h( n)
j
Y (e ) X (e ) H (e )
y(n)
Y (z)
H (z)
X (z)
m
b
z
m
m 0
N
k
a
z
k
k 0
Kz ( N M )
(z c
m 1
N
(z d
k 1
)
)
1
(
1
c
z
)
m
m 1
N
(1 d
k 1
z )
H (e ) Ke
j ( N M )
(e
cm )
(e
dk )
m 1
N
k 1
H (e ) e
j arg[ H ( e j )]
K is a real number
H (e ) K
(e
cm )
(e
dk )
m 1
N
k 1
zero vector
pole vector
Cm e
Dk e
cm m e
d k lk e
j m
j k
m 1
arg[e
m 1
d k ] ( N M )
zero vector
C m e j c m m e j m
pole vector
Dk e j d k l k e j k
cm ]
H (e ) K
m 1
N
k 1
m 1
k 1
arg[ H (e )] arg[ K ] m k ( N M )
j
Response
H (e j ) K m N1
k 1
1
2
2
l1
e j
1
1
l2
K m 1
k 1
mi
mo
pi
po
M m i mo
N pi po
po 0,
pi N
2m i 2pi 2 ( N M )
2
2 m i 2 M 2 mo
A causal stable system with all zeros inside the unit circle
is called a minimumphase delayed system
H (e j )
arg
0
2
A causal stable system with all zeros outside the unit circle
is called a maximumphase delayed system
H ( e j )
arg
2M
2
H ( e j )
arg
pi 0,
po N
2m i 2 ( N M )
2
H ( e j )
arg
2N 2po
2
H ( e j )
arg
2 ( N M ) 2 ( po mo )
2
j
For all systems with the identical  H (e ) 
N 1
N 1
n 0
n 0
n0
n 0
2
2

h
(
n
)


h
(
n
)

min
2
2

h
(
n
)


h
(
n
)

min , m N1
Definition
 H ap (e j )  1
z a
H ap ( z )
,
1
1 az
j
a re j , 0 r 1
j
j ( )
e re
1 re
j
H ap (e )
e
j j
j ( )
1 re e
1 re
j
1 r cos( ) jr sin( )
1
1 r cos( ) jr sin( )
1 ( a ) 1 z 1
H ap ( z )
,
1
1 az
j
H ap (e ) r
a re j , 0 r 1
j Im[z ]
a
1
a
Re[z ]
z a
z a
j
H ap ( z )
, a re , 0 r 1
1
1
1 az 1 a z
H ap (e j ) 1
1 ( a ) 1 z 1 1 a 1 z 1
j
H ap ( z )
, a re , 0 r 1
1
1
1 az
1 a z
j
H ap (e ) r
example
let a re , 0 r 1
z 1 a z 1 a
z 2 2rz 1 cos r 2
H ap ( z )
1
1
1 az 1 a z
1 2rz 1 cos r 2 z 2
1
2 2
1 2rz cos r z
2
2 D( z )
z
z
1
2 2
D( z )
1 2rz cos r z
D( z ) 1 2rz cos r z
1
2 2
k
1
z a
H ap ( z )
k 1 1 a k z
N
( N 1 )
d N d N 1 z d 1 z
z
z D( z )
1
( N 1 )
N
1 d 1 z d N 1 z
dN z
D( z )
j
D( e ) D ( e
j
H (e ) 1
z ak
( z 1 bk )( z 1 bk )
H ap ( z )
1
1
1
k 1 1 a k z
k 1 (1 bk z )(1 bk z )
NR
NC
 a k  1,  bk  1
Application
Phase equalizers
H ( z ) H ap ( z ) H d ( z )
H (e ) H ap (e ) H d (e )
j
H ap (e ) H d (e ) e
j [ ap ( ) d ( )]
arg[ H (e )] ap ( ) d ( )
Group delays
d arg[ H (e j )]
( )
ap ( ) d ( ) 0
d
example
H ( z ) H min ( z ) H ap ( z )
H ( z ) H 1 ( z ) ( z 1 zo ) ( z 1 zo )
H 1 ( z ) a minimumphase system
1 1
, a pair of conjugate zeros outside the unit circle
zo zo
 zo  1
1
1
1
z
z
1
z
z
o
o
H ( z ) H 1 ( z ) ( z 1 zo ) ( z 1 zo )
1
1
1 zo z 1 zo z
1
o
1
z zo z z
H 1 ( z ) (1 z z ) (1 zo z )
1
1 zo z 1 zo z
1
o
H min ( z ) H ap ( z )
H 1 ( z ) (1 zo z 1 ) (1 zo z 1 ) is a minimumphase system
z 1 zo z 1 zo
1
1
1 zo z 1 zo z
example
z a
z a
H ap ( z )
1
1 az 1 a z 1
H ( z ) H ( z ) H ap ( z )
H (z ) unstable system
H (z ) stable system
H (z )
Express H(z) in
z1 cross multiply
and take inverse
Difference
Equation
ZT
take ZT solve
for Y/X
h(n )
substitute
j
Inverse DTFT
ze
Take DTFT
solve for Y/X
Inverse ZT
DTFT
j
H (e )
return
(n)
1
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
10
5
5
n
10
15
20
5
5
n
10
15
20
( n 5)
1
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
10
return
u(n)
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
u( n 5)
10
15
20
10
15
20
1
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
return
R10 ( n)
Rectangular
sequence
unit step sequence
1
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
R10 ( n 5)
10
15
20
10
15
20
1
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
return
1.5 cos(0.05 2 n)
Amplitude
Sinusoidal sequence
1
0
1
2
10
20
30
n
40
50
60
10
20
30
n
40
50
60
2
1
0
1
2
return
Realvalued
exponential
sequence
Sinusoidal
sequence
0.25
0.001 1.2
Amplitude
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
10
15
n
20
0.2
30
0.2 0.8 n
0.15
Amplitude
25
0.1
0.05
0
10
15
n
20
25
30
return
real part
2e
Amplitude
1.5
1
( j )n
5 8
1
0.5
0
0.5
10
20
25
30
35
25
30
35
imaginary part
1.5
Amplitude
15
1
0.5
0
0.5
10
15
20
return
n 2 R1780( n 8)
finitelength sequence
Amplitude
60
40
20
0
20
15
10
cos(0.4n)
10
15
20 n
10
15
20 n
infinitelength sequence
Amplitude
5
0.5
0
0.5
1
20
15
10
5
return
rightsided sequence
0.8
0.2 0.8 n u( n 5)
Amplitude
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
10
5
10
n
15
20
causal sequence
0.2
30
0.2 0.8 n u( n)
0.15
Amplitude
25
0.1
0.05
0
10
5
10
n
15
20
25
30
return
leftsided sequence
0.8
0.2 0.8 n u( n 5)
Amplitude
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
30
25
20
15
10
n
5
10
0.2 0.8 n u( n)
anticausal sequence
0.2
Amplitude
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
30
25
20
15
10
n
5
10
return
0.2 0.8
twosided sequence
0.2
n
Amplitude
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
20
15
10
0
n
10
15
20
0.2 cos(0.3n)
twosided sequence
0.2
Amplitude
5
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
20
15
10
5
0
n
10
15
20
return
0.3 n u( n)
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
10
15
n
20
25
30
35
0.85 n u( n)
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
5
10
15
n
20
25
30
35
return
0.15
Amplitude
sin 0.3n
n
squaresummable sequence
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
20
15
10
5
0
n
10
15
squaresummable sequence
0.2
sin 0.6n
n
0.15
Amplitude
20
0.1
0.05
0
0.05
20
15
10
5
0
n
10
15
20
return
Timeshifting operation
0.2 0.8 u( n)
n
original sequence
Amplitude
0.2
0.1
0
10
5
Amplitude
0.2
10
15
delayed sequence
20
25
30
0.2 0.8 n 5 u( n 5)
0.1
0
10
5
Amplitude
0.2
5
10
15
advanced sequence
20
25
30 n
0.2 0.8 n 5 u( n 5)
0.1
0
10
5
10
15
20
25
30
return
folding operation
original sequence
0.8 n u( n)
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
20
15
10
5
0
n
10
15
20
folding sequence
0.8 u( n)
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
20
15
10
5
0
n
10
15
20
return
addition operation
x1(n)
1
Amplitude
0.8 n u( n)
0.5
10
15
Amplitude
25
30
35
40 n
cos(0.2n)u( n)
1
10
15
20
x1(n)+x2(n)
25
30
35
40 n
10
15
20
25
30
35
40 n
2
Amplitude
20
x2(n)
0.8 n u( n) cos(0.2n)u( n)
1
0
1
return
modulation operation
Amplitude
0.1
0.1
20
40
60
80
x2(n)
100
120
20
40
60
80
x1(n)*x2(n)
100
120
20
40
60
80
100
120
Amplitude
140
160
140
160
140
160
sin 0.125n
1
0.1
Amplitude
x1(n)
x1 ( n) x 2 ( n)
0.1
return
periodic sequence
1
Amplitude
sin( n)
8
periodic sequence
0.5
0
0.5
1
10
20
30
50
60
70
80
90
sin( n)
16
periodic sequence
Amplitude
40
0.5
0
0.5
1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
return
Periodicity of sequence
x1(n)
Amplitude
10
20
30
40
10
20
30
40
1
Amplitude
n)
8
1
x2(n)
50
60
70
80
50
60
70
80
90
sin(
3
n)
10
1
1
Amplitude
sin(
x3(n)
90
sin( 0.4n)
1
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
return
T0 32
T
3
Periodicity of sequence 2
Amplitude
0.5
0
0.5
1
10
20
30
40
50
T0 10
T
3
Amplitude
60
0.5
0
0.5
1
10
20
30
40
50
60
return
12
( n) 4 ( n 1)
3 ( n 2) 6 ( n 3)
8 ( n 4) 10 ( n 5)
11 ( n 6) 9 ( n 7 )
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
return
x(n)
Amplitude
10
0 .9
0
20
15
10
5
0
xe(n)
10
15
20
15
10
5
0
xo(n)
10
15
20
15
10
5
10
15
20
Amplitude
6
4
2
0
20
Amplitude
5
20
return
Accumulator
n
n 1
y( n)
y ( n)
l 0
l 0
y( n)
1
M
M 1
x( n k )
k 0
An application: consider x ( n) s( n) d ( n)
Where s(n) is the signal, and d (n) is a random noise
s( n) 2n0.9 n
M 8
1 7
y( n) x ( n k )
8 k 0
return
Amplitude
10
10
15
20
25
x(n)
30
35
40
45
50
10
15
20
25
y(n)
30
35
40
45
50
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Amplitude
10
0
10
Amplitude
s( n) 2n0.9 n
s(n),d(n)
return
y ( n)
Accumulator
x( l )
T [ x1 ( n)]
x (l ),
T [ax1 ( n) bx 2 ( n)]
n
T [ x 2 ( n)]
x (l )
[ax ( l ) bx
( l )]
a x1 ( l ) b x 2 ( l ) aT [ x1 ( n)] bT [ x 2 ( n)]
Hence, the above system is linear
return
y ( n)
Accumulator
x( l )
n k
T [ x ( n k )]
x(l )
y( n k )
n k
x(l ) T [ x(n k )]
return
1.5
Amplitude
x ( n) R10 ( n)
x(n)
0.5
0
10
15
20
Amplitude
1.5
25
h(n)
30
35
40
45
50
h( n) 0.9 n u( n)
0.5
0
10
15
20
Amplitude
10
25
y(n)
30
35
40
45
50
y( n) x ( n) h( n)
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
return
M k 0
For a bounded input x ( n) B x , we have
1
y( n)
M
M 1
1
x
(
n
k
)
M
k 0
M 1
x( n k )
k 0
( MB x ) B x
M
Hence, the Mpoint moving average filter is BIBO stable
return
h( n) u( n)
n
1
S  a  u( n)  a 
1 a
n
n0
n
if  a  1
return
Amplitude part
8
6
Amplitude
Amplitude
6
4
2
0
2
1
Amplitude
1
0
pi
1
0
pi
imaginary part
0.5
2
0
2
phase part
0.5
phase(pi)
0
pi
5
2
1
0
pi
return
Amplitude part
Amplitude
Amplitude
6
4
2
0
1
0.5
0.5
0
1
Amplitude
phase(pi)
0
pi
phase part
0.5
0.5
1
real part
0.5
0
pi
0.5
0.5
0
pi
0.5
imaginary part
5
1
0.5
0
pi
0.5
return
H (z)
1
z 1
z 2 0.9 z 0.81
0.8
0.6
Imaginary Part
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1
0.5
0
Real Part
0.5
Amplitude response
15
H (z)
z 1
z 2 0.9 z 0.81
Amplitude
10
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
pi
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.9
phase response
phase(pi)
0.5
0
0.5
1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
pi
0.6
return
7 19 1
z
H ( z ) 12 24
5 1
1 z z 2
2
Imaginary Part
0.5
0.5
1
1
0.5
0.5
Real Part
1.5
Amplitude response
0.55
Amplitude
0.5
0.45
7 19 1
z
H ( z ) 12 24
5 1
1 z z 2
2
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
pi
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.8
0.9
phase response
phase(pi)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
pi
0.6
return
Imaginary Part
z a
z a
H ap ( z )
1
1 az 1 a z 1
1.5
1
(r , )
21
3
1
a
0.5
0.5
1
a
1.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Real Part
0.5
1.5
return
1
.
12
z
0
.
48
z
1
0.8
1
zo
0.6
Imaginary Part
0.4
0.2
2
0.2
0.4
1
zo
0.6
0.8
1
1
0.5
0
Real Part
0.5
return
1
0.8
1
zo
0.6
Imaginary Part
0.4
zo
0.2
2
0.2
zo
0.4
1
zo
0.6
0.8
1
1
0.5
0
Real Part
0.5
return
1 0.83 z 1 0.35 z 2
H (z)
1
2
1
2
.
41
z
2
.
26
z
1
a
1
0.8
0.6
zo
Imaginary Part
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
1
a
0.8
1
1
0.5
0
Real Part
0.5
return
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