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CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Principle Stresses

Under a Given

Loading

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Principle Stresses Under a Given Loading

Introduction

Principle Stresses in a Beam

Sample Problem 8.1

Sample Problem 8.2

Design of a Transmission Shaft

Sample Problem 8.3

Stresses Under Combined Loadings

Sample Problem 8.5

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Introduction

In Chaps. 1 and 2, you learned how to determine the normal stress due

to centric loads

In Chap. 3, you analyzed the distribution of shearing stresses in a

circular member due to a twisting couple

In Chap. 4, you determined the normal stresses caused by bending

couples

In Chaps. 5 and 6, you evaluated the shearing stresses due to

transverse

loads

In Chap. 7, you learned how the components of stress are transformed

by a rotation of the coordinate axes and how to determine the

principal planes, principal stresses, and maximum shearing stress

at a point.

In Chapter 8, you will learn how to determine the stress in a structural

member or machine element due to a combination of loads and

how to find the corresponding principal stresses and maximum

shearing stress

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Prismatic beam subjected to transverse

loading

My

Mc

m

I

I

VQ

VQ

xy

m

It

It

of Chapter 7

Can the maximum normal stress within

the cross-section be larger than

m

Mc

I

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Principle Stresses in a Beam

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Cross-section shape results in large values of xy

near the surface where x is also large.

max may be greater than m

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine shear and bending

moment in Section A-A

Calculate the normal stress at top

surface and at flange-web junction.

A 160-kN force is applied at the end

of a W200x52 rolled-steel beam.

of stress concentrations, determine

whether the normal stresses satisfy a

design specification that they be

equal to or less than 150 MPa at

section A-A.

flange-web junction

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine shear and bending moment in

Section A-A

M A 160 kN 0.375 m 60 kN - m

V A 160 kN

and at flange-web junction.

MA

60 kN m

S

512 10 6 m3

117 .2 MPa

y

90.4 mm

b a b 117 .2 MPa

c

103 mm

102.9 MPa

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Evaluate shear stress at flange-web junction.

Q 204 12.6 96.7 248.6 103 mm3

248.6 10 6 m3

V AQ 160 kN 248.6 10 6 m3

b

It

52.7 10 6 m 4 0.0079 m

95.5 MPa

flange-web junction

max 12 b

12 b 2 b2

2

102.9

102.9

2

95.5

2

2

169.9 MPa 150 MPa

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine reactions at A and D.

Determine maximum shear and

bending moment from shear and

bending moment diagrams.

The overhanging beam supports a

uniformly distributed load and a

concentrated load. Knowing that for

the grade of steel to used all = 24 ksi

and all = 14.5 ksi, select the wideflange beam which should be used.

and select appropriate beam section.

Find maximum normal stress.

Find maximum shearing stress.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine reactions at A and D.

M A 0 RD 59 kips

M D 0 R A 41kips

moment from shear and bending moment

diagrams.

M max 239.4 kip in

V max 43 kips

and select appropriate beam section.

M max 24 kip in

Smin

119 .7 in 3

all

24 ksi

select W21 62 beam section

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Find maximum shearing stress.

Assuming uniform shearing stress in web,

V

43 kips

max max

5.12 ksi 14.5 ksi

Aweb 8.40 in 2

a

M max

60 kip in

2873

22.6 ksi

3

S

127in

y

9.88

b a b 22.6 ksi

21.3 ksi

c

10.5

V

12.2 kips

1.45 ksii

Aweb 8.40 in 2

21.3 ksi

21.3 ksi

max

2

2

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

1.45 ksi 2

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

If power is transferred to and from the

shaft by gears or sprocket wheels, the

shaft is subjected to transverse loading

as well as shear loading.

Normal stresses due to transverse loads

may be large and should be included in

determination of maximum shearing

stress.

Shearing stresses due to transverse

loads are usually small and

contribution to maximum shear stress

may be neglected.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

At any section,

Mc

I

Tc

m

J

where M 2 M y2 M z2

max m

2

Mc

2I

Tc

max

c

M2 T2

J

c min

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

M 2 T 2

all

max

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine the gear torques and

corresponding tangential forces.

Find reactions at A and B.

Identify critical shaft section from

torque and bending moment diagrams.

Solid shaft rotates at 480 rpm and

transmits 30 kW from the motor to

gears G and H; 20 kW is taken off at

gear G and 10 kW at gear H.

Knowing that all = 50 MPa, determine

the smallest permissible diameter for

the shaft.

diameter.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine the gear torques and corresponding

tangential forces.

TE

P

30 kW

597 N m

2f 2 80 Hz

T

597 N m

FE E

3.73 kN

rE

0.16 m

TC

20 kW

398 N m

2 80 Hz

FC 6.63 kN

TD

10 kW

199 N m

2 80 Hz

FD 2.49 kN

Ay 0.932 kN

Az 6.22 kN

B y 2.80 kN

Bz 2.90 kN

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Identify critical shaft section from torque and

bending moment diagrams.

M 2 T 2

max

1357 N m

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Calculate minimum allowable shaft diameter.

J

M 2 T 2 1357 N m

27.14 106 m3

c

all

50 MPa

For a solid circular shaft,

J 3

c 27.14 10 6 m3

c 2

c 0.02585 m 25.85 m

d 2c 51.7 mm

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Wish to determine stresses in slender

structural members subjected to

arbitrary loadings.

Pass section through points of interest.

Determine force-couple system at

centroid of section required to maintain

equilibrium.

System of internal forces consist of

three force components and three

couple vectors.

Determine stress distribution by

applying the superposition principle.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Axial force and in-plane couple vectors

contribute to normal stress distribution

in the section.

Shear force components and twisting

couple contribute to shearing stress

distribution in the section.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Normal and shearing stresses are used to

determine principal stresses, maximum

shearing stress and orientation of principal

planes.

Analysis is valid only to extent that

conditions of applicability of superposition

principle and Saint-Venants principle are

met.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine internal forces in Section

EFG.

Evaluate normal stress at H.

Evaluate shearing stress at H.

steel post as shown. Determine the

principle stresses, principal planes and

maximum shearing stress at point H.

maximum shearing stress.

Determine principal planes.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SOLUTION:

Determine internal forces in Section EFG.

Vx 30 kN

P 50 kN Vz 75 kN

M x 50 kN 0.130 m 75 kN 0.200 m

8.5 kN m

M y 0 M z 30 kN 0.100 m 3 kN m

A 0.040 m 0.140 m 5.6 103 m 2

1 0.040 m 0.140 m 3 9.15 10 6 m 4

I x 12

1 0.140 m 0.040 m 3 0.747 10 6 m 4

I z 12

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Evaluate normal stress at H.

y

P Mz a Mx b

A

Iz

Ix

3 kN m 0.020 m

5.6 10-3 m 2

0.747 10 6 m 4

50 kN

8.5 kN m 0.025 m

9.15 106 m 4

Q A1 y1 0.040 m 0.045 m 0.0475 m

85.5 106 m3

Vz Q

75 kN 85.5 10 6 m3

yz

I xt

9.15 10 6 m 4 0.040 m

17.52 MPa

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Third

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Calculate principal stresses and maximum

shearing stress.

Determine principal planes.

max R 33.02 17.522 37.4 MPa

max OC R 33.0 37.4 70.4 MPa

min OC R 33.0 37.4 7.4 MPa

tan 2 p

CY 17.52

2 p 27.96

CD 33.0

p 13.98

max 37.4 MPa

max 70.4 MPa

min 7.4 MPa

p 13.98

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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