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POLITICAL SCIENCE: the systematic

study of the state and the


government
POLITICAL: comes from the Greek
word polis which means a city
or state
SCIENCE: comes from the Latin word
scire which means to know

SCOPE OF POLITICAL SCIENCE


1.

POLITICAL THEORY body of doctrines


relating to the origin, form, behavior and
purposes of the state.

2.

PUBLIC LAW organization of the


government and its powers and duties;
limitation upon government authority.

3.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION methods and


techniques used in the actual management
of state affairs.

IMPORTANCE OF
POLITICAL SCIENCE
1.

To discover the principles that should be


adhered to in public affairs and to study the
operations of the government.

2.

Its findings can be used in seeking resolutions


to immediate situations.

3.

To be able to deal with social and economic


problems and other matters of public and
private concerns.

CONCEPT OF STATE
A community of persons more or less
numerous, permanently occupying a
definite portion of territory, having a
government of their own, to which the
great body of inhabitants render
obedience and enjoying freedom from
external control.

ELEMENTS OF THE STATE


1. People the inhabitants or mass
2.

3.

4.

population living within the state.


Territory the fixed portion of the surface
of the earth inhabited by the people of the
state.
Government the agency through which
the will of the state is expressed and
carried out.
Sovereignty the supreme power of the
state to command and enforce obedience
to its will from people and to have freedom
from foreign control.

NATION

STATE
legal/political
one

concept

state may consist


of one or more nations

ethnic
one

concept

nation may be
made up of several
states

STATE
principal

GOVERNMENT
agent

abstraction

externalize

cannot

can

cannot

can

exist without
the government
be changed so
long as the elements
are present

the will of

the state
exist without a
state
be changed

FORMS of GOVERNMENT
As to number of persons exercising sovereign
powers
1.

2.
3.

Monarchy one in which the supreme and


final authority is in the hands of a single
person.
Aristocracy one in which political power
is exercised by a few privileged class
Democracy one in which political power
is exercised by a majority of people.

As to extent of powers by the central


government
1.

2.

Unitary government one in which the


control of national and local affairs is
exercised by the central or national
government.
Federal government one in which the
powers of government are divided between
two sets of organs, one for national affairs
and the other for local affairs.

As to relationship between the executive


and the legislative branches of the
government
1.

2.

Parliamentary government one in


which the state confers upon the
legislature the power to terminate the
tenure of office of the real executive.
Presidential government one in
which the state makes the executive
independent of the legislature as regards
his tenure, policies and acts.

GOVERNMENT
of the
PHILIPPINES
in
TRANSITION

PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT
Barangay
Datu
Social

classes
Early laws

SPANISH PERIOD
Ferdinand

Magellan (1521)
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (1566)
Katipunan government (1892)
Biak na Bato Republic (1897)
Dictatorial government (1898)
Philippine Independence at Kawit, Cavite
Revolutionary

government (1898)
First Philippine Republic (1898)
Malolos Constitution

AMERICAN PERIOD
Treaty

of Paris
Military government (1898)
Civil government (1901)
Commonwealth government (1934)
Tydings Mc Duffie Law

JAPANESE PERIOD
Japanese

Military Administration

(1942)
The Philippine Executive Commission
The Japanese-sponsored Republic of
the Philippines (1943)

The PROVISIONAL GOVT. of


1986
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Revolutionary
De jure/de facto
Constitutional
Democratic
Powers
Provisional Constitution

CONSTITUTION
is a written instrument by which the
fundamental
powers
of
the
government are established, limited
and defined by which these powers
are distributed among the several
departments/branches for the benefit
of the people.

NATURE & PURPOSE OF


CONSTITUTION
1. Supreme/Fundamental Law

Constitution is binding on all citizens


and all organs of the government. It is the
law to which all other laws must conform.

2. Basic Framework
Constitution is providing system to
the government; assigning powers and
duties to different government
departments/branches; protecting the
rights of individuals against arbitrary
actions of the government.

Requisites of a
good written constitution
As to form
1. Brief
2. Broad
3. Definite

As to contents
1. Constitution of
government
2. Constitution of
liberty
3. Constitution of
sovereignty

CONSTITUTION

a legislation direct
from the people
merely states the
general framework
of the law
not merely to meet
existing conditions
but to govern the
future
the supreme or
fundamental law

STATUTE
a legislation from the
peoples
representatives
provides the details
of
the subject it treats
to meet existing
conditions only

Law born-out from

CONSTITUTIONS
OF THE
REPUBLIC OF THE
PHILIPPINES

Malolos Constitution
September

15, 1898, Congress met


in Malolos, Bulacan and framed the
Malolos Constitution
lasted only for a short period of time
from January 23, 1899 to March 23,
1901

1935 Constitution
March

24, 1934 Pres. Roosevelt


authorized the calling of a
constitutional convention to draft a
constitution of the Philippines
March 23, 1935 Pres. Roosevelt
approved the Constitution.
May 14, 1935 Filipinos ratified the
Constitution

1973 Constitution
March

16, 1967 Congress authorized the


holding of a constitutional convention
June 1, 1971 the convention started to
rewrite the Constitution
November 30, 1972 the proposed
Constitution was signed
September 21, 1972 Pre. Marcos placed
the entire country under martial law
January 17, 1973 Filipinos ratified the
Constitution

Freedom Constitution
February

22-25, 1986 - 4 day people


power revolt
March 25, 1986 - Freedom
Constitution was promulgated

1987 Constitution
April

23, 1986 - Constitutional


Commission was created to draft the
proposed Constitution
June 2, 1986 - the Constitutional
Commission convened
October 15, 1986 - draft of the
Constitution was finished
February 2, 1987 - the 1987
Constitution was ratified by the people
on a plebiscite