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You are on page 1of 30

By

Dr. Attaullah Shah

Wah Cantt.

be required in addition to anchor bars to support stirrups.

If the applied ultimate moment is more than the factored

nominal capacity allowed by maximum steel ratio, the

additional steel may be required in compression and

tension to support the excess moment.

Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength

and Behavior

Less concrete is needed to

resist the T and thereby

moving the neutral axis

(NA) up.

T As f y

C T

Sections

Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength

and Behavior

Singly Reinforced

C Cc ; M n As f y

Doubly Reinforced

a1

d

2

a2

C Cc Cs ; M n As f y d

2

and a2 a1

Reduced sustained load deflections.

Creep of concrete in compression zone

transfer load to compression steel

reduced stress in concrete

less creep

less sustained load deflection

Four Possible Modes of Failure

( Case 2 ) Only tension steel yields

( Case 3 ) Only compression steel yields

( Case 4 ) No yielding Concrete crushes

Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility Check

Assume s using similar

triangles

s

0.003

c

c d '

c d '

* 0.003

s

Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility

Using equilibrium and find a

T Cc Cs a

As As

0.85 f cb

fy

As As f y ' d f y

a

c

1 1 0.85 f cb

1 0.85 f c

Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility

The strain in the compression

steel is

d

s 1 cu

c

1 0.85 f c d

1

0.003

' d f y

Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility

Confirm

s y

fy

Es

s y

fy

fy

1 0.85 f c d

1

0.003

E s 29 x 10 ksi

' d f y

Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility

Confirm

1 0.85 f c d f y 87

87

' d f y

1 0.85 f c d

87

'

87 f

d

f

y

Rectangular Sections

Find c

As f y 0.85 f c ba As f y

Ass As

fy

0.85 f c b 1

a 1c

fy

d c

s

cu y

Es

c

Rectangular Sections

If the statement is true than

a

M n As As f y d As f y d d

2

f s E s

Rectangular Sections

Return to the original equilibrium equation

As f y As f s 0.85 f cba

AsEs s 0.85 f cb 1c

d

AsEs 1 cu 0.85 f cb 1c

c

Rectangular Sections

Rearrange the equation and find a quadratic equation

d

As f y AsEs 1 cu 0.85 f cb 1c

c

2

0.85 f cb 1c AsEs cu As f y c AsEs cu d 0

Rectangular Sections

Find the fs

f s 1 Es cu

c

d

1 87 ksi

fy

d c

s

cu y

Es

c

Rectangular Sections

Another option is to compute the stress in the

compression steel using an iterative method.

1 0.85 f c d

f s 29 x 10 1

0.003

'

d

f

Rectangular Sections

Go back and calculate the equilibrium with fs

Af

T C C a

s y

a

c

1

0.85 f cb

adjusted for the fs until the

stress converges.

d

f s 1 87 ksi

c

As f s

Rectangular Sections

Compute the moment capacity of the beam

M n As f y As f s d As f s d d

2

for Doubly Reinforced beams

Lower limit on

min

3 f c

200

fy

fy

(ACI 10.5)

Section

Given:

fc= 4000 psi fy = 60 ksi

As = 2 #5 As = 4 #7

d= 2.5 in. d = 15.5 in

h=18 in. b =12 in.

Calculate Mn for the section for the given

compression steel.

Section

Compute the reinforcement coefficients, the

area of the bars #7 (0.6 in2) and #5 (0.31 in2)

As 4 0.6 in 2 2.4 in 2

As 2 0.31 in 2 0.62 in 2

As

2.4 in 2

0.0129

bd 12 in. 15.5 in.

As

0.62 in 2

0.0033

bd 12 in. 15.5 in.

Section

Compute the effective reinforcement ratio and

minimum

eff

200

200

0.00333

fy

60000

3 f c 3 4000

or

0.00316

fy

60000

Section

Compute the effective reinforcement ratio and

minimum

1 0.85 f c d

87

'

d

f

87

f

y

y

0.85 0.85 4 ksi 2.5 in.

60

ksi

15.5

in.

0.00957 0.0398

87

0.0398

87 60

yielded.

Section

Instead of iterating the equation use the quadratic

method

0.85 f cb 1c 2 AsEs cu As f y c AsEs cu d 0

0.85 4 ksi 12 in. 0.85 c 2

0.62 in 29000 ksi 0.003 2.5 in. 0

c 2 2.5969c 3.8884 0

Section

Solve using the quadratic formula

c 2.5969c 3.8884 0

2

2.5969

c 3.6595 in.

2.5969

2

4 3.8884

Section

Find the fs

f s 1 Es cu

c

27.565 ksi

2.5 in.

1

87 ksi

3.659 in.

s

0.003 0.00971 0.00207

3.659 in.

Section

Check to see if c works

c

As f y As fs

0.85 f c 1b

c 3.659 in.

Section

Compute the moment capacity of the beam

M n As f y As f s d As f s d d

2

2.4 in 2 60 ksi

0.85 3.659 in.

15.5 in.

0.62

in

27.565

ksi

Section

If you want to find the Mu for the problem

c 3.66 in.

0.236

d 15.5 in.

c

text)

0.375

0.9

M u M u 0.9 166 k - ft

149.4 k - ft

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