You are on page 1of 30

# Reinforced Concrete Design-4

## Design of doubly reinforced beams

By
Dr. Attaullah Shah

Wah Cantt.

## Due to size limitations compression reinforcement may

be required in addition to anchor bars to support stirrups.
If the applied ultimate moment is more than the factored
nominal capacity allowed by maximum steel ratio, the
additional steel may be required in compression and
tension to support the excess moment.

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections

Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength
and Behavior
Less concrete is needed to
resist the T and thereby
moving the neutral axis
(NA) up.

T As f y
C T

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Sections
Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength
and Behavior
Singly Reinforced

C Cc ; M n As f y

Doubly Reinforced

a1
d
2

a2
C Cc Cs ; M n As f y d
2

and a2 a1

## Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement

Reduced sustained load deflections.
Creep of concrete in compression zone
transfer load to compression steel
reduced stress in concrete
less creep
less sustained load deflection

## Doubly Reinforced Beams

Four Possible Modes of Failure

## ( Case 1 ) Compression and tension steel yields

( Case 2 ) Only tension steel yields

## Over reinforced Failure

( Case 3 ) Only compression steel yields
( Case 4 ) No yielding Concrete crushes

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Strain Compatibility Check
Assume s using similar
triangles

s
0.003

c
c d '

c d '

* 0.003
s

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Strain Compatibility
Using equilibrium and find a

T Cc Cs a

As As
0.85 f cb

fy

As As f y ' d f y
a
c

1 1 0.85 f cb
1 0.85 f c

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility
The strain in the compression
steel is

d
s 1 cu
c

1 0.85 f c d
1
0.003

' d f y

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility
Confirm

s y

fy
Es

s y

fy
fy
1 0.85 f c d
1
0.003

E s 29 x 10 ksi
' d f y

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Strain Compatibility
Confirm

1 0.85 f c d f y 87

87
' d f y
1 0.85 f c d
87
'

87 f
d
f
y

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Find c
As f y 0.85 f c ba As f y

Ass As

fy

0.85 f c b 1

a 1c

fy
d c
s
cu y
Es
c

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
If the statement is true than

a
M n As As f y d As f y d d
2

f s E s

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Return to the original equilibrium equation

As f y As f s 0.85 f cba
AsEs s 0.85 f cb 1c
d
AsEs 1 cu 0.85 f cb 1c
c

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Rearrange the equation and find a quadratic equation

d
As f y AsEs 1 cu 0.85 f cb 1c
c

2
0.85 f cb 1c AsEs cu As f y c AsEs cu d 0

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Find the fs

f s 1 Es cu
c

d
1 87 ksi

fy
d c
s
cu y
Es
c

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Another option is to compute the stress in the
compression steel using an iterative method.

1 0.85 f c d
f s 29 x 10 1
0.003

'
d
f

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Go back and calculate the equilibrium with fs

Af

T C C a

s y

a
c
1

0.85 f cb

## Iterate until the c value is

adjusted for the fs until the
stress converges.

d
f s 1 87 ksi
c

As f s

## Analysis of Doubly Reinforced

Rectangular Sections
Compute the moment capacity of the beam

M n As f y As f s d As f s d d
2

## Limitations on Reinforcement Ratio

for Doubly Reinforced beams
Lower limit on

min

3 f c
200

fy
fy

(ACI 10.5)

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Given:
fc= 4000 psi fy = 60 ksi
As = 2 #5 As = 4 #7
d= 2.5 in. d = 15.5 in
h=18 in. b =12 in.
Calculate Mn for the section for the given
compression steel.

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Compute the reinforcement coefficients, the
area of the bars #7 (0.6 in2) and #5 (0.31 in2)
As 4 0.6 in 2 2.4 in 2

As 2 0.31 in 2 0.62 in 2
As
2.4 in 2

0.0129
bd 12 in. 15.5 in.
As
0.62 in 2

0.0033
bd 12 in. 15.5 in.

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Compute the effective reinforcement ratio and
minimum

eff

200
200

0.00333
fy
60000
3 f c 3 4000
or

0.00316
fy
60000

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Compute the effective reinforcement ratio and
minimum
1 0.85 f c d
87
'

d
f
87

f
y

y
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 2.5 in.

60
ksi
15.5
in.

0.00957 0.0398

87

0.0398
87 60

yielded.

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Instead of iterating the equation use the quadratic
method
0.85 f cb 1c 2 AsEs cu As f y c AsEs cu d 0
0.85 4 ksi 12 in. 0.85 c 2

## 0.62 in 29000 ksi 0.003 2.4 in 60 ksi

0.62 in 29000 ksi 0.003 2.5 in. 0

## 34.68c 2 90.06c 134.85 0

c 2 2.5969c 3.8884 0

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Solve using the quadratic formula
c 2.5969c 3.8884 0
2

2.5969

c 3.6595 in.

2.5969
2

4 3.8884

Section
Find the fs

f s 1 Es cu
c

27.565 ksi

2.5 in.

1
87 ksi
3.659 in.

## 15.5 in. 3.659 in.

s
0.003 0.00971 0.00207
3.659 in.

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Check to see if c works
c

As f y As fs
0.85 f c 1b

c 3.659 in.

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
Compute the moment capacity of the beam

M n As f y As f s d As f s d d
2

2.4 in 2 60 ksi

0.85 3.659 in.

15.5 in.

0.62
in
27.565
ksi

## Example: Doubly Reinforced

Section
If you want to find the Mu for the problem
c 3.66 in.

0.236
d 15.5 in.

c
text)
0.375

0.9

## The resulting ultimate moment is

M u M u 0.9 166 k - ft
149.4 k - ft