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Reinforced Concrete Design-4

Design of doubly reinforced beams


By
Dr. Attaullah Shah

Swedish College of Engineering and Technology


Wah Cantt.

Due to size limitations compression reinforcement may


be required in addition to anchor bars to support stirrups.
If the applied ultimate moment is more than the factored
nominal capacity allowed by maximum steel ratio, the
additional steel may be required in compression and
tension to support the excess moment.

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections


Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength
and Behavior
Less concrete is needed to
resist the T and thereby
moving the neutral axis
(NA) up.

T As f y
C T

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Sections
Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength
and Behavior
Singly Reinforced

C Cc ; M n As f y

Doubly Reinforced

a1
d
2

a2
C Cc Cs ; M n As f y d
2

and a2 a1

Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement


Reduced sustained load deflections.
Creep of concrete in compression zone
transfer load to compression steel
reduced stress in concrete
less creep
less sustained load deflection

Doubly Reinforced Beams


Four Possible Modes of Failure

Under reinforced Failure

( Case 1 ) Compression and tension steel yields


( Case 2 ) Only tension steel yields

Over reinforced Failure


( Case 3 ) Only compression steel yields
( Case 4 ) No yielding Concrete crushes

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Strain Compatibility Check
Assume s using similar
triangles

s
0.003

c
c d '

c d '


* 0.003
s

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Strain Compatibility
Using equilibrium and find a

T Cc Cs a

As As
0.85 f cb

fy

As As f y ' d f y
a
c

1 1 0.85 f cb
1 0.85 f c

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility
The strain in the compression
steel is

d
s 1 cu
c

1 0.85 f c d
1
0.003

' d f y

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections

Strain Compatibility
Confirm

s y

fy
Es

s y

fy
fy
1 0.85 f c d
1
0.003

E s 29 x 10 ksi
' d f y

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Strain Compatibility
Confirm

1 0.85 f c d f y 87

87
' d f y
1 0.85 f c d
87
'

87 f
d
f
y

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Find c
As f y 0.85 f c ba As f y

Ass As

fy

0.85 f c b 1

a 1c

confirm that the tension steel has yielded

fy
d c
s
cu y
Es
c

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
If the statement is true than

a
M n As As f y d As f y d d
2

else the strain in the compression steel

f s E s

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Return to the original equilibrium equation

As f y As f s 0.85 f cba
AsEs s 0.85 f cb 1c
d
AsEs 1 cu 0.85 f cb 1c
c

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Rearrange the equation and find a quadratic equation

d
As f y AsEs 1 cu 0.85 f cb 1c
c

2
0.85 f cb 1c AsEs cu As f y c AsEs cu d 0

Solve the quadratic and find c.

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Find the fs

f s 1 Es cu
c

d
1 87 ksi

Check the tension steel.

fy
d c
s
cu y
Es
c

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Another option is to compute the stress in the
compression steel using an iterative method.

1 0.85 f c d
f s 29 x 10 1
0.003

'
d
f

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Go back and calculate the equilibrium with fs

Af

T C C a

s y

a
c
1

0.85 f cb

Iterate until the c value is


adjusted for the fs until the
stress converges.

d
f s 1 87 ksi
c

As f s

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced


Rectangular Sections
Compute the moment capacity of the beam

M n As f y As f s d As f s d d
2

Limitations on Reinforcement Ratio


for Doubly Reinforced beams
Lower limit on

min

3 f c
200

fy
fy

same as for single reinforce beams.

(ACI 10.5)

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Given:
fc= 4000 psi fy = 60 ksi
As = 2 #5 As = 4 #7
d= 2.5 in. d = 15.5 in
h=18 in. b =12 in.
Calculate Mn for the section for the given
compression steel.

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Compute the reinforcement coefficients, the
area of the bars #7 (0.6 in2) and #5 (0.31 in2)
As 4 0.6 in 2 2.4 in 2

As 2 0.31 in 2 0.62 in 2
As
2.4 in 2

0.0129
bd 12 in. 15.5 in.
As
0.62 in 2

0.0033
bd 12 in. 15.5 in.

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Compute the effective reinforcement ratio and
minimum

eff

0.0129 0.0033 0.00957

200
200

0.00333
fy
60000
3 f c 3 4000
or

0.00316
fy
60000

min 0.0129 0.00333 OK!

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Compute the effective reinforcement ratio and
minimum
1 0.85 f c d
87
'

d
f
87

f
y

y
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 2.5 in.

60
ksi
15.5
in.

0.00957 0.0398

87

0.0398
87 60

Compression steel has not


yielded.

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Instead of iterating the equation use the quadratic
method
0.85 f cb 1c 2 AsEs cu As f y c AsEs cu d 0
0.85 4 ksi 12 in. 0.85 c 2

0.62 in 29000 ksi 0.003 2.4 in 60 ksi


0.62 in 29000 ksi 0.003 2.5 in. 0

34.68c 2 90.06c 134.85 0


c 2 2.5969c 3.8884 0

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Solve using the quadratic formula
c 2.5969c 3.8884 0
2

2.5969

c 3.6595 in.

2.5969
2

4 3.8884

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Find the fs

f s 1 Es cu
c

27.565 ksi

2.5 in.

1
87 ksi
3.659 in.

Check the tension steel.

15.5 in. 3.659 in.


s
0.003 0.00971 0.00207
3.659 in.

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Check to see if c works
c

As f y As fs
0.85 f c 1b

2.4 in 60 ksi 0.62 in 27.565 ksi

c 3.659 in.

The problem worked

0.85 4 ksi 0.85 12 in.

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
Compute the moment capacity of the beam

M n As f y As f s d As f s d d
2

2.4 in 2 60 ksi

0.85 3.659 in.

15.5 in.

0.62
in
27.565
ksi

0.62 in 2 27.565 ksi 15.5 in. 2.5 in.

1991.9 k - in. 166 k - ft

Example: Doubly Reinforced


Section
If you want to find the Mu for the problem
c 3.66 in.

0.236
d 15.5 in.

From ACI (figure R9.3.2)or figure (pg 100 in your


c
text)
0.375

0.9

The resulting ultimate moment is

M u M u 0.9 166 k - ft
149.4 k - ft