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Dr.

Irfannuddin,
SpKO

KINESIOLOGI
Applied of anatomy &
mechanics in movements

LOKOMOTOR SYSTEM
Passive Bones
Active Muscles

Joints:
Companionship of 2 or more bone, center of movement
(fulcrum)
Joint supports:
Tendon, ligament, joint capsule (discus/meniscus), sinovial
fluids, cartilage, bursa

Bones

Foundation of body
Cortex & Medulla
4 types

Long bones
Short bones
Flat bones
Pneumatics

Locomotors

Long, short and scapula

Joints
Fibrous (sindesmosis)
Fibrous, No cavity, almost not moving
Skull

Cartilaginous (sinkondrosis)
Hyaline cartilage, no cavity, almost not moving
Sternum to costae

Sinovial joints (diartrosis)


With cavity, moving free
knee, ankle, hip etc

Knee

Joint structure
Bones
Bones shape determine movements
Joint capsule
Slick, decrease friction
Diskus/meniskus
Buffer, Shock absorber, stability,
Cavity with fluids
Lubricator, nutrition for cartilage
Ligament
Connective tissue, control the movement

Sendi lutut

Types of Joint
Hinge joint
1 axis: flexion - extension

Pivot joint
1 rolling axis
Pronasi - supinasi

Saddle joint
2 axis (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction)

Kondiloid joint
2 axis

Ball & socket


Most flexible 3 aksis
(flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, endoexo rotation)

Gliding joint
Multi axis but limited

Skeletal muscle

Active locomotor engine


Converting chemical to kinetics
Origo :
- Not mobile bone, always proximal
Insersio :
- Mobile bone always distal
- Usually connected by tendon

Muscle formation

Contraction
Sliding filament
Head of myosin torque

Types of contraction
Dynamics
The length is change when contraction
Concentric

Shorten
Muscle force more than
external force
For acceleration
Eq: Quadriceps while
standing

Eccentric

Lengthwise
Muscle force less then
external force
For decceleration
Eq: Quadriceps while
sitting

Jenis Kontraksi
Static/Isometric

Contraction but not change in length (tighten)


Muscle force = external force
For fixation

Push the wall

Contraction Power
Depend on
Diameter
Motor Unit
Tension before
Electrical stimulation

Motor Unit

Tension Before

Contraction pattern
Agonist
Principal activator Biceps brachii while elbow flexion
Supporting activator
Brachialis while elbow flexion
Stabilizers/ fixation
Shoulder while elbow flexion
Synergy
Ankle extension while finger flexion
Antagonist
Work adversative to controls agonist,
Usually eccentric
Hamstring while kicking the ball

Types of movement
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation
Endorotation/ pronasi
Exorotation/ supinasi
Sircumduction

Thats all