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Original Title: Digital Voltmeters

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to the following broad categories.

Ramp type DVM.

Integrating DVM.

Continuous-balanced DVM

DIGITAL

VOLTMETERS

THE SINGLE SLOPE

PRINCIPLE

(i)

Input range

Input range of DVM are from 1.000000 V to 1,000.000 V with

automatic/Manual range selection and overload indication

(ii) Absolute accuracy

Accuracy of DVMs are as high as 0.005 per cent of the reading.

(iii) Stability

For short term Stability is 0.002 per cent of the reading for a 24 hr

period. And for long term stability is 0.008 per cent of the reading for a

6 month period.

(iv) Resolution

1 part in 106.i.e 1 V can be read on the 1-V input range.

(v)

Input Characteristics

Input resistance typically 10 M and input capacitance is

typically 40 PF.

(vi) Calibration (Not in all Models)

Internal calibration standard allows calibration independent of the

measuring circuit

(vii)To measure current, resistance and voltage ratios an additional

1. TWO Comparators.

2. Input Voltage Comparator

3. Zero Comparator

4. Switch (gate),

5. Clock pulse generator

6. Ramp generator.

An input voltage Vin is applied to one input of a voltage

comparator.

The second input being connected to the ramp voltage

generator.

When the ramp generator is first turned on, several things

happen.

1. At the start of the RAMP counter is RESET to zero.

2. Downward Ramp coincides with the input voltage, a

pulse is generated which opens the gate.

3. Clock pulses from the clock generator are allowed

through the gate to

the counter.

4. The counter then starts to count each clock pulse as it

arrives.

Operation principle:

The measurement of the time it takes for a linear ramp voltage to rise from

O V to the level of the input voltage, or to decrease from the level of the

input voltage to zero. This time interval is measured with an electronic

time-interval counter.

t1

V0

t2

The

1. Very stable clock signal is required.

2. Noise in the signal causes errors.

3. Input Filters are required.

4. Stability is poor.

Advantages

1. It has excellent noise rejection because noise and superimposed ac are

arranged and in the process of integration.

2. The speed and accuracy are readily varied according to the specific

requirements.

3) Also accuracy of 0.05% in 100ms is available.

Count

T=1000 clock pulses. The

reference voltage is taken

as half the input voltage.

The clock frequency is set for 48KHz. It is divided by 4. So the clock period is

80msec. Integration period is 1000 clock pulses long. The analog period is integrated

over a period of 80msec. This is for optimum hum frequency (50Hz) rejection. 3

samples per second are taken

1. The system commences the measurement when the switch connects the Analog

signal input to the integrator which commences to ramp down. At this point, the

integration capacitor, C, falls linearly from the input, to a level decided by the

average input signal value over the counter time period (T).

2. At the same time the counter begins from zero, to count the clock pulses.

3. When a predetermined number of pulses,( 1000 with the 7106), appear in the

counter, the integrator is electronically switched over to the reference voltage.

As the switch changes to the reference, the counter is reset to zero and

commences counting again.

The reference, which is of opposite polarity to the input signal now causes the

charged integration capacitor (C) to ramp upward with a fixed slope.

4. When the output of the integrator reaches the zero threshold, the counter is

stopped and its contents displayed on the digital readout.

The count displayed is the ratio of the counts during the downward ramp (over time t)

to the counts during the upward ramp (Over timeT). Thus, for a limit of 1000 counts

during the downward ramp, a direct reading of input voltage is obtained if the reference

voltage is chosen appropriately.

Advantages:

1. The absolute value of the integration capacitor and the clock

frequency are of little

significance provided they are stable for the duration of the

conversion period.

2. The relatively long analogue to digital conversion period has

an inherent advantage in that it ignores noise. When noise is

integrated over an extended period, its amplitude tends to zero.

Thus, dual-slope integration results in excellent accuracy.

o.

1

Large errors are possible

when noise is

superimposed on the

input signal

2

3

4

5

6

Dual Slope

Has excellent noise

rejection because noise

and superimposed ac are

averaged out in the process

of integration.

Circuit complexity is

moderate

Input filters are required Filters not required

Low accuracy and

Accuracy of this DVM is

accuracy depends on the high. Accuracy is

stability of oscillator and independent of oscillator

the linearity of the ramp frequency

slope

Poor stability

High stable

Operating speed slow

Operating speed high

To Generate -5V

Load cell of a weighing system may have an output voltage of 0.682V when it

has 2.0 Kg weight on it. You want the meter to read the range 0 - 1.99 Kg

directly.

It is an easy matter to adjust VREF to 0.341V (half the output voltage), put the

decimal point in the correct position by moving the jumper and the panel

meter now reads off 0 - 1.99 Kg directly from the display.

Current Measurement.

Currents up to 2A can be easily measured using the space on the board for a 5W

shunt resistor, R. The current is converted into a voltage by the shunt resistor.

If R = 0.1 ohms then 200mV will be developed when the current through it is 2A.

This voltage is applied to the meter which is set up for the 200mV range. (That is,

VREF is set to 100mV.) Power dissipation at the maximum reading is I2R which is

0.4W, well within the 5W rating of the resistor.

To measure a full scale of 200mA then R should be 1.0 ohms in order to generate

200mV input to the meter. For a 20 mA meter then R = 10 ohms. Note that because

of wide tolerances in the shunt resistors it may be necessary to adjust the reference

voltage in order to get the correct reading. So further adjustment of VREF using a

known current may be required.

General:

Maximum voltage between terminals:600V

Fuse protection :200mA/250V

Power: 9V battery

Display: LCD 31/2digits, updates 2-3/ sec.

Input impedance:10 M

Frequency range : :40-400Hz

Measuring method: Dual-slope integration

Over range indication: Only figure 1on the

display

Polarity indication -displayed for negative

polarity

reference voltage is 10 volts and the fixed integration time is 10ms. Find

the conversion time for a 6.8volt input.

Accuracy of DMM

analog instrument is on its 25 V range , and its specified accuracy is 2%. The

digital meter has 3 digit display and an accuracy of (0.6+1). Determine the

measurement accuracy in each case.

Analog instrument: Voltage error = 2%of 25V

= 0.5V

Error = 0.5 V/20 100%

= 2.5%

1 Digit = 0.1 V.

Voltage error=(0.6%of reading + 1Digit)

= (1.2V + 0.1V)

= 0.22V

Error = 0.22 V/20V 100%

= 1.1%

TYPE DVM

type DVM is shown in Fig.5.15.

The input voltage is applied to one side of a mechanical chopper

comparator, the other side being connected to the variable arm of a

precision potentiometer. The output of the chopper comparator,

which is driven by the line voltage at the line frequency rate, is a

square wave signal whose amplitude is a function of the difference

in voltages connected to the opposite side of the chopper. The square

wave signal is amplified and fed to a power amplifier, and the

amplified square wave difference signal drives the arm of the

potentiometer in the direction needed to make the difference voltage

zero. The servo-motor also drives a mechanical readout, which is an

indication of the magnitude of the input voltage.

This DVM uses the principle of balancing, instead of sampling,

because of mechanical movement. The average reading time is 2 s.

Fig. 5.15

DVM

Resolution

If n = number of full digits, then

Resolution (R) is 1 / 10n.

The resolution of a DVM is determined by the number of full or

active digits used,

Sensitivity of Digital Meters

Sensitivity is the smallest change in input which a digital meter is able to detect.

Hence, it is the full scale value of the lowest voltage range multiplied by the

meter's resolution.

Sensitivity S = (fs)min x R

where (fs)min = lowest full scale of the meter

R = resolution expressed as decimal

Example: What is the resolution of a

digit display on 1 V and 10 V

ranges?

Solution Number of full digits is 3. Therefore resolution is 1/10 n where n = 3.

Hence the meter cannot distinguish between values that differ from each other by

less than 0.001 of full scale.

For full scale range reading of 1 V, the resolution is 1 x 0.001 = 0.001 V.

For full scale reading of 10 V range, the resolution is 10V x 0.001 = 0.01 V.

Hence on 10 V scale, the meter cannot distinguish between readings that differ by

less than 0.01 V.

Example 5.4

A

digit voltmeter is used for voltage measurements,

(i) Find its resolution

(ii) How would 12.98 V be displayed on a 10 V range?

(iii) How would 0.6973 be displayed on 1 V and 10 V ranges.

Solution: Resolution = 1/10n = 1/104.=0.0001

where the number of full digits is n = 4

(ii) There are 5 digit places in 41/2 digits, therefore 12.98 would be displayed as

12.980.

Resolution on 1 V range is 1 V x 0.0001 = 0.0001

Any reading up to the 4th decimal can be displayed.

Hence 0.6973 will be displayed as 0.6973.

(iii) Resolution on 10 V range = 10 V x 0.0001 = 0.001 V

Hence decimals up to the 3rd decimal place can be displayed.

Therefore on a 10 V range, the reading will be 0.697 instead of 0.6973.

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