Introduction Rain Water Harves vesting
RWH means storing Rain water in nw artificial / manmade reserv ervoir ( tank ) OR ch In natural reservoirs such as Pond, aquifer and using it as and when we need it as a source of water

In short RWH is storing Rain water either in tank Ra above ground or bellow ground and using it as a gr source of water

Following are the objectiv of R.W.H ctives
1) To use it as a source of water eo (i) Drinking purpose e (ii) Non potable purpo such as flushing, rpose gardening , car washin ect. hing (iii) To store it and use it for Horticulture and us agriculture purpose. 2) To recharge open well & bore well so as to ell replenish the water used during entire year use

3) To store it in pond, lake for either recharge of subsoil fo / aquifer or for to use it after monsoon aft 4) To control salt water intrus rusion in pond,lake,well,bore well along coastal area. 5) To recharge subsoil / aquif in cities so that local uifer level flooding is reduced or arrested particularly in o cities. 6) To improve quality of wate ater.

Potential Of Rain Wate ater
Assuming annual average Rain fall as a 1000mm (1m) in f Each 1000 sqm of land will yield 1000 cum ield or 10,00,000 liters of water.( one million liter ) on 1000 cu.m is sufficient for 20 pe persons for entire year at 135 lpcd 1000 cum is sufficient of about 70 person for entire year for ut flushing purpose at 40 lpcd Assuming Cost of water supplied as 20 per cum We will be lied loosing at Rs 20 per sqm of land or 20000per 1000 sqm of land and every year.

Importance of Rain Wat Harvesting ater
In a city normally tap and or bore well water is a source of bo water.

Very few people are considering Rain water as a source of water ing

Since Rain water has huge pote tential we should consider Rain water as a 1st source of water and then go for other sources. ra

Quantification of Rain Water Harvesting ing
(i) Roof top (Terrace )of Building / B Buildings and (ii) Open portion of plot Roof top area can be calculated from bldg drawing Hence quantification rom of Roof top Rain water is possible e If we know Rate of Infiltration then recharge quantity can be calculated en If intake capacity of bore well is know to us then we can calculate kno quantity of water used for recharge of bore well ge R.W.U.I. = Rain water Used during year ing Total Rain fall during ye year

Procedure for Roof top (Terrace ) Rainwater p( collection
Calculate the Available roof top or terrace area op Annual average Rainfall & No of Rainy days Daily requirement of water for non potable use such as flushing , rn Gardening, Car washing etc. Position of Rain Water down take pipes. tak

Use of Rainwater for Non Potable Purpo rpose
(1) Jamanabai Narsi school at Juhu Mumbai hu Roof Top area = 8,00 sqm Daily requirement = 40,000 liter er Rain water Storage tank capacity provided = 1,00,000 ity This storage capacity is sufficient to collect 120mm of rain fall & is nt sufficient for 2 ½ day flushing water requirement. wa Total Rainwater available for use 8,00 X 2 X0.70 se = 1,120 cum

(2) 10th Kheth wadi Mumbai Roof Top 110 sqm Total Flats 54 Daily flushing water Requirement 10,800 liter w Rain water Storage tank capac pacity 10,000 liters This storage capacity is suffici ficient to collect 90 mm Rainfall & is sufficient for one day. Total Rain water available 110 X 2 X 0.70 = 154 cu.m CIPLA LTD. Vikoril (West ) Mumbai bai Roof top 1170 sq mt Flushing water requirement 75,000 liters t7 Rain water Storage tank capa pacity 2,00,000 liters This storage capacity sufficient to store 170mm Rainfall & is os sufficient of 2 ½ days, Total Rain Water available Ra 1,170 X 2 X 0.70 = 1,638 cu.m

Capacity of Roof Top Rain Water S r Storage Tank
Hence capacity of Rainwater storage tank should be rs either 5 times flushing daily (non potable) water aily requirement OR capacity should be sufficient to collect 100 mm Rainfall tt over Roof top. ( Minimum tank capacity sho hould be 10,000 liters so as to accommodate one tanke of water ) ker

By using 100 micron Geo textile tex Uni tech filter having µv¶ wire technology ire Rainy Filters ( F.R.H. system Banglore ) em Jonsan V wire filter

On Line Filters

Recharge of Subsoi Groundwater soil
For Rain fall over open portion of plot following options are no available for R W H (i) Recharge of subsoil (ii) Recharge of Aquifer (iii) Recharge of bore well For recharge of subsoil we will have to carry out infiltration test ill h  Trial Pit Methods  Double Ring Infiltro meter For recharge of Aquifer we will have to carry out packer ill h permeability test For recharge of bore well we will have to carry out pumping test wil

Recharge of Subsoil il Infiltration Test
TRIAL PIT METHOD The percolation rate is observed at site by developing / ed constructing a trial pit of size 1. 1.2m x 1.2m x 1.5m. The pit is filled with locally avail ailable graded material. Here It is necessary to stimulate the same physical condition which may me occur during rainy seasons. Hence percolation rate is observ erved during a small dry spell after a long monsoon rains say two to three days or more. o After 2 or 3 days of rains the sub soil will be sufficiently su saturated, and the percolation rate observed will be more nr realistic, than one observed dur uring pre monsoon period, This observed rate is a reasonab basis to calculate the number nable of pits required to percolate , after knowing the area from which af water is collected.

Recharge of Subsoil Infiltration Test
Double Ring Infiltro meter It is a another simple method for finding out permeability of fo soil.( flow rate of water into gro round ) Instrument consist of 2 concentric ring with outer ring having dia of 30 can and inner gh ring having dia of 15 cm . (or outer 60 cm & Inner 30 cm ) r ou Height of each Ring is 30 cm Th two rings are driven partially in The to soil ( say 10 cm inside the soil ) so that rings stands vertically so on their own First outer ring is filled up with water and then Inner ring is filled th w up with water The water level in both ring is maintained either l manually or with instruments till steady downward rate is s ti observed. This steady rate will indicate the Infiltration rate of ill i that soil.

Options to recharge subsoil ge
Percolation pit Percolation pit with bore bor Percolation pit along SWD S Percolation pit with bo along with SWD bore


Recharge of Bore well ell ( Pumping Test )
Water is pumped out from bore well for 2 to 3 hours with known re pumping rate. While pumping water level is recorded from start every 15 rec minute till we stop pumping After we stop pumping water level is again recorded every 15 lev minute till it attains original leve evel From above data we can calcula in take capacity of bore well. ulate


Quality of water used for well recharge sed ( Artificial recharge ) rec
Roof top ( Terrace ) water to be used for direct ter recharge after proper care such as system having first re flush & filter arrangement. nt. Run off water contains org rganic matter, fecal matter, pesticide residue and disso ssolved fertilizer are potential source of contamination. . Hence quality of water sho hould be comparable to that of Drinking water.

Natural Recharge al R
In case of natural recharge of aquifer by Rainfall & rge surface runoff it passes through certain depth of soil thr cover, before it reaches the aquifer. Here ground th water recharge takes adva vantage of subsoil¶s natural ability for biodegradation and filtration, there by na providing in situ treatment of surface runoff. This soil ent cover acts as a purifier.

Hence following methods are used sa i) A farm pond ( 10m X 6mX 3m ) at a distance of 2m 6m from open well or bore well ll ii) Circular trench around bore well or well at distance db of 2m away & filled up with graded material. wit

Utilization of Surface Runoff ace
For Rain Water Harvesting of surface Runoff in layout having su area more the 10000 sq.m., provide pond having 5% area and 3 pro m average depth. Then pond will have capacity to store 500x w 3= 1500 cu.m. Helps in reducing flooding of adjoining road ad At S.H. Kelkar & Co. At their factory at panvel: fac We have developed pond having 50 m dia and 3 m average ing depth, to collect part surface runoff from 22 Area of land ru ( 88000 sq m ). The capacity of Tank. is 5891.25 cu.m.


Operation and Maint intenance Guidelines
Special instructions to be given to the members of society / en occupants to keep the terrace of Bldg clean ( Terrace should not eo be allowed by society to its mem ember to any family function ) Filter to be used as per instruct uctions of manufacturer Necessary precautions to be taken to avoid mosquito breeding. tak Simple periodic chlorination or use of lime in the flushing tank for disinfection is to carried out. out Filter media and nylon net should be cleaned periodically to sho obtain proper result. Water should not be allowed to stagnate in the collection or percolation pit. Drain the R.W.H tank completel and clean from inside tely

thoroughly before every mon onsoon.

I Think with this we can defiantly achieve ca substantial RWH