Chapter-5 Employees Testing & Selection

 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Objectives of this chapter what is meant by reliability and validity. Explain how you would go about validating a test. Cite and illustrate our testing guidelines. Give examples of some considerations in testing. of the ethical and legal

List eight tests you could use for employee selection, and how you would use them. Explain the key points to remember in conducting background investigations.

Selecting Human Resources
• Next to recruitment, the logical step in the HR process is selection of qualified & competent people. Nature of Selection Selection is the process of picking individuals with requisite qualifications & competence to fill jobs in the org. Recruitment & Selection are the two crucial steps in the HR process. Recruitment refers to the process of identifying & encouraging prospective employees to apply for the jobs, selection is concerned with picking the right candidates from a pool of applicants. Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible. Selection, on the other hand, is negative in its application inasmuch as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates.

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Selection Process
External Environment Internal Environment
R e j e c t e d A p p l i c a n t s

Preliminary Interview Selection Tests Employment Interview Reference & Backward Analysis Selection Decision Physical Examination Job offer Employment Contract Evaluation

Environmental Factors Affecting Selection Selection is influenced by several factors. More prominent among them are supply & demand of specific skills in the labour market, unemployment rate, Labour-market conditions, company’s image, company’s policy, HRP & cost of hiring.

Preliminary Interview In the Recruitment we have seen that short listing of the application, same in the selection process. Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified job seekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. Preliminary Interview, on the other hand, helps reject misfits for reasons, which did not appear in the application forms.

Selection Tests Job seekers who pass the screening & the preliminary interview are called for test. Different types of tests may be administrated, depending on the job & the company. Generally, tests are used to determine the applicant’s ability, aptitude & personality. Eg:- Personality test, Ability test, Graphology test, Medical test.

Employment Interview The next step in the selection process is employment interview. Interview is a formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability. It allows an two-ways exchange data. The Employment interview can be 1) one-to-one 2) Panel

Types of interview 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Structured – A predetermined checklist of questions, usually asked of all applicants. Unstructured – Few, if any planned questions, Questions are made up during the Interview. Mixed – A combination of structured & unstructured questions. Behavioral – Questions limited to hypothetical situation Stressful – A series of harsh, rapid fire questions intended to upset the applicant. References & Backward Analysis Many employers request names, addresses & telephone numbers or references for the purpose of verifying information & perhaps gaining background information on an applicant. Companies normally seeks the telephone reference. The purpose of reference check is to gain insight about the potential employee from the people who had experience with him or her.

Selection Decision After obtaining information through the preceding steps, selection decision the most critical of all the steps must be made. The final decision has to be made from the pool of individuals who pass the tests, interviews & reference checks. The final decision indeed becomes a daunting task when there are a large number of job-seekers lined up for final selection. eg:- In 2003 Infosys has received one million applications of which only 10,000 were finally hired. Recently in Essar Oil there are 40,000 applications are pending from that they are going to hire only 4,000 emp.

Physical Examination After the selection decision & before the job offer is made , the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. Finally, such an examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illnesses were present when the employee was hired.

• Job offer
The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the hurdles. Job offer is made through a letter of appointment. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty.

• Employment Contract
After the job offer has been made & the candidates accept the offer, certain documents needed to be executed by the employer & the candidate. There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment. The basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job.

Typical Heading • • • • • • Job title Duties Date when the employment starts Pay, allowances, overtime, method of payment Hours of work including lunch break Holidays arrangements

• Evaluation
The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. A firm must have competent & committed personnel. The selection process, if properly done, will ensure availability of competent employee in the org. Eg:- Japanese employer are selecting the employees with the help of their blood group. With the help of the blood group they will know the skills & abilities of employee.

Why Careful Selection is Important
The Importance of Selecting the Right Employees

Organizational Performance

Costs of Recruiting and Hiring

Legal Obligations and Liability (negligent hiring)

Selection Ratio
• Effects of the labour market on selection decisions can be evaluated by selection ratio

No. of Applicants Hired


Total no. of Applicants

Selection Outcomes

Correct Decision

Correct Decision



Wrong Decision

Wrong Decision



• Basic Testing Concepts • Selection is thus important. We will start with testing. • A test is basically a sample of a person’s behavior. • Reliability • Validity

1. Reliability
• Consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical tests or with an equivalent form of a test. • Reliability is very important. If a person scores 90 on an intelligence test on a Monday & 130 when retested on Tuesday, you probably wouldn’t have much faith in the test.

2. Validity
– tests must be valid, or measure what they are supposed to measure A test should be job related - performance on a test should be a valid predictor of subsequent performance on the job

Types of Validity

Criterion Validity

Content Validity

Construct Validity

• Criterion Validity

Demonstrating a Test’s Validity
– those who do well on the test also do well on the job, and those who do poorly on the test do poorly on the job

• Content Validity

– showing that the test constitutes a fair sample of the content of a job
• Construct Validity

– Extent to which a selection method measures the degree of identifiable characteristics in the candidates necessary for successful performance of the job

• How to validate a test
– – – – – Step-1:- Analyze the Job Step-2:- Choose the test Step-3:- Administer the test Step-4:- Relate your Test Scores & Criteria Step-5:- Cross Validate & Revalidate

Types of Tests
What Tests Measure

Cognitive (Mental) Abilities

Motor and Physical Abilities

Personality and Interests


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