Motion Planning for Multiple

Autonomous Vehicles

Fuzzy Logic
Presentation of paper: R. Kala, K. Warwick (2015). Reactive
Planning of Autonomous Vehicles for Traffic Scenarios. Electronics
4, 739-762
School of Systems, Engineering, University of
April, 2013

Rahul
Kala
rkala.99k.org

Why Fuzzy Logic?
• Computational Time
• Work with partially known environments
Issues
• Completeness
• Optimality

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Key Contributions
• Design of a Fuzzy Inference System for the
problem.
• Design of a decision making module for
deciding the feasibility of overtaking purely
based on the vehicle distances and speeds.
• Design of an evolutionary technique for
optimization of such a fuzzy system.
• Using the designed fuzzy system enabling
vehicles to travel through a crossing by
introducing a virtual barricade.

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Fuzzy Inference System
• Codify the immediate scenario to a few inputs.
• Decide the actions to be taken and hence design the
outputs.
• Think of various scenarios and the associated
inputs/outputs and generalize them as rules

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Inputs

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Some Inputs

Left Distances
Right Distances

Obstacle

γi
θi

Obstacle

Front Distances

Deviation = γi – θi
Minimal of twin distance inputs is
taken

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Turn to avoid obstacle

If front distance from left corner is less than front
distance from right corner, turn right; and vice
versa
Motion Planning
for Multiple
Autonomous
rkala.99k.org
Heuristic
holds
from
most Vehicles
small obstacles/general

Overtaking

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Feasibility criterion with 3
vehicles
• Assumption: Road not wide enough for
multiple (>3) vehicles to lie side-by-side
• The vehicles are projected to travel straight
subsequently (else would require to adjust for
overtaking)
• Condition 1: (1), (2) and (3) can
simultaneously lie side by side along the road,
OR
• Condition 2: (2) can complete overtake of (1)
within the time (3) does not lie in the
overtaking zone
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Cooperation
• Whether (3) needs to steer in a particular
direction to enable overtake?
• Cooperation required in case the vehicles need
to align to fit within road width (condition 1)
• (3) moves opposite to the location of (1) and (2)

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Vehicle Following
• In case of infeasibility, the vehicle would follow
the vehicle in front
• If any oncoming vehicle/any other vehicle
causing overtake infeasibility passes, overtake
initiates
• Vehicle can drive in the wrong side and does
not consider the vehicle in front (both inputs
disabled)
• When (2) is ahead of (1), the inputs are enabled
again
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Crossing
• Add virtual barricade as boundaries on road not
used in navigation
• Make the vehicle go by designed fuzzy planned
– overtaking disabled
• In absence of traffic lights first come first serve
sequence followed

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Crossing
Left Boundary

Barricades

Right Boundary

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Evolution of fuzzy planner
• Optimization using Genetic Algorithm
• Complete design using Genetic Algorithm would be
computationally expensive
• Initial fuzzy planner designed by human based on sample
scenarios
• Altering optimization of rules and membership functions
for a few cycles
• Rule optimization can increment/decrement any
antecedent/consequent by a unity
• Membership function optimization can move any
membership function parameters within a narrow region.
• Fitness Function: Minimize time, minimize collisions,
minimize time in wrong side, minimize safety distance
breach

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Evolution of fuzzy planner
F ← Human Designed
Fuzzy Planner
End
While no of cycles are not
met

Return F

Map
F ← Tune Rules (F)
Fitness Evaluation
F ← Tune Membership
Function Parameters (F)

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

Simulation

rkala.99k.org

Results – Single Vehicle

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Results – Vehicle
Avoidance

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Results – Multi Vehicle

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Results – Multi Vehicle

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Results - Crossing

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Analysis
10
9
8
7
6
Speed

Left Turn 1
Left Turn 2
Right Turn 1
Right Turn 2
Straight
Left Turn with Obstacle

5
4
3
2
1
0

Two vehicle scenarios

Time

Single vehicle scenarios

10
9
8
7
6
5
Speed 4
3
2
1
0

Left Turn 1
Left Turn 2
Right Turn 1
Right Turn 2
Straight

Time

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Analysis
10
9
8
7
6
Speed

5
With Overtake
Without Overtake

4
3
2
1
0
Time

Overtaking scenarios

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Angle Deviation from
Road
30
20
10
Angle

Left Turn
Right Turn
Straight
Left Turn with Obstacle

0
-10
-20
-30

Two vehicle scenarios

30

Time

20

Single vehicle scenarios

10
Angle

0

Left Turn
Right Turn
Straight

-10
-20
-30
Time

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Angle Deviation from
Road
30
20
10
Angle

0

With Overtake
Without Overtake

-10
-20
-30
Time

Overtaking scenarios

Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

• Acknowledgements:
• Commonwealth Scholarship
Commission in the United Kingdom
• British Council

Thank You
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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