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# Motion Planning for Multiple

Autonomous Vehicles

Fuzzy Logic
Presentation of paper: R. Kala, K. Warwick (2015). Reactive
Planning of Autonomous Vehicles for Traffic Scenarios. Electronics
4, 739-762
School of Systems, Engineering, University of
April, 2013

Rahul
Kala
rkala.99k.org

## Why Fuzzy Logic?

Computational Time
Work with partially known environments
Issues
Completeness
Optimality

## Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Key Contributions
Design of a Fuzzy Inference System for the
problem.
Design of a decision making module for
deciding the feasibility of overtaking purely
based on the vehicle distances and speeds.
Design of an evolutionary technique for
optimization of such a fuzzy system.
Using the designed fuzzy system enabling
vehicles to travel through a crossing by

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## Fuzzy Inference System

Codify the immediate scenario to a few inputs.
Decide the actions to be taken and hence design the
outputs.
Think of various scenarios and the associated
inputs/outputs and generalize them as rules

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Inputs

## Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Some Inputs

Left Distances
Right Distances

Obstacle

i
i

Obstacle

Front Distances

Deviation = i i
Minimal of twin distance inputs is
taken

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## If front distance from left corner is less than front

distance from right corner, turn right; and vice
versa
Motion Planning
for Multiple
Autonomous
rkala.99k.org
Heuristic
holds
from
most Vehicles
small obstacles/general

Overtaking

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## Feasibility criterion with 3

vehicles
Assumption: Road not wide enough for
multiple (>3) vehicles to lie side-by-side
The vehicles are projected to travel straight
subsequently (else would require to adjust for
overtaking)
Condition 1: (1), (2) and (3) can
simultaneously lie side by side along the road,
OR
Condition 2: (2) can complete overtake of (1)
within the time (3) does not lie in the
overtaking zone
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Cooperation
Whether (3) needs to steer in a particular
direction to enable overtake?
Cooperation required in case the vehicles need
to align to fit within road width (condition 1)
(3) moves opposite to the location of (1) and (2)

## Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Vehicle Following
In case of infeasibility, the vehicle would follow
the vehicle in front
If any oncoming vehicle/any other vehicle
causing overtake infeasibility passes, overtake
initiates
Vehicle can drive in the wrong side and does
not consider the vehicle in front (both inputs
disabled)
When (2) is ahead of (1), the inputs are enabled
again
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Crossing
Make the vehicle go by designed fuzzy planned
overtaking disabled
In absence of traffic lights first come first serve
sequence followed

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Crossing
Left Boundary

Right Boundary

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## Evolution of fuzzy planner

Optimization using Genetic Algorithm
Complete design using Genetic Algorithm would be
computationally expensive
Initial fuzzy planner designed by human based on sample
scenarios
Altering optimization of rules and membership functions
for a few cycles
Rule optimization can increment/decrement any
antecedent/consequent by a unity
Membership function optimization can move any
membership function parameters within a narrow region.
Fitness Function: Minimize time, minimize collisions,
minimize time in wrong side, minimize safety distance
breach

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## Evolution of fuzzy planner

F Human Designed
Fuzzy Planner
End
While no of cycles are not
met

Return F

Map
F Tune Rules (F)
Fitness Evaluation
F Tune Membership
Function Parameters (F)

Simulation

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Results Vehicle
Avoidance

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## Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Results - Crossing

## Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Analysis
10
9
8
7
6
Speed

Left Turn 1
Left Turn 2
Right Turn 1
Right Turn 2
Straight
Left Turn with Obstacle

5
4
3
2
1
0

Time

10
9
8
7
6
5
Speed 4
3
2
1
0

Left Turn 1
Left Turn 2
Right Turn 1
Right Turn 2
Straight

Time

## Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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Analysis
10
9
8
7
6
Speed

5
With Overtake
Without Overtake

4
3
2
1
0
Time

Overtaking scenarios

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## Angle Deviation from

30
20
10
Angle

Left Turn
Right Turn
Straight
Left Turn with Obstacle

0
-10
-20
-30

30

Time

20

10
Angle

Left Turn
Right Turn
Straight

-10
-20
-30
Time

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## Angle Deviation from

30
20
10
Angle

With Overtake
Without Overtake

-10
-20
-30
Time

Overtaking scenarios

## Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

rkala.99k.org

Acknowledgements:
Commonwealth Scholarship
Commission in the United Kingdom
British Council

Thank You
Motion Planning for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles

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