QuadratureMirror Filter Bank
In many applications, a discretetime signal
x[n] is split into a number of subband signals
by
{vk means
[n]} of an analysis filter bank
The subband signals are then processed
Finally, the processed subband signals are
combined by a synthesis filter bank resulting
in an output signal y[n]
1
Copyright S. K. Mitra
QuadratureMirror Filter Bank
If the subband signals {vk [n]}are
bandlimited to frequency ranges much
smaller than that of the original input signal
x[n], they can be downsampled before
processing
Because of the lower sampling rate, the
processing of the downsampled signals can
be carried out more efficiently
2
Copyright S. K. Mitra
QuadratureMirror Filter Bank
After processing, these signals are then upsampled before being combined by the
synthesis filter bank into a higherrate
signal
The combined structure is called a
quadraturemirror filter (QMF) bank
Copyright S. K. Mitra
QuadratureMirror Filter Bank
If the downsampling and upsampling
factors are equal to or greater than the
number of bands of the filter bank, then the
output y[n] can be made to retain some or
all of the characteristics of the input signal
x[n] by choosing appropriately the filters in
the structure
4
Copyright S. K. Mitra
QuadratureMirror Filter Bank
If the upsampling and downsampling
factors are equal to the number of bands,
then the structure is called a critically
sampled filter bank
The most common application of this
scheme is in the efficient coding of a signal
x[n]
5
Copyright S. K. Mitra
TwoChannel QMF Bank
Figure below shows the basic twochannel
QMF bankbased subband codec
(coder/decoder)
Copyright S. K. Mitra
TwoChannel QMF Bank
The analysis filters H 0 (z ) and H1(z ) have
typically a lowpass and highpass frequency
responses, respectively, with a cutoff at /2
Copyright S. K. Mitra
TwoChannel QMF Bank
Each downsampled subband signal is
encoded by exploiting the special spectral
properties of the signal, such as energy
levels and perceptual importance
It follows from the figure that the sampling
rates of the output y[n] and the input x[n]
are the same
8
Copyright S. K. Mitra
TwoChannel QMF Bank
The analysis and the synthesis filters are
chosen so as to ensure that the reconstructed
output y[n] is a reasonably close replica of
the input x[n]
Moreover, they are also designed to provide
good frequency selectivity in order to
ensure that the sum of the power of the
subband signals is reasonably close to the
input signal power
9
Copyright S. K. Mitra
TwoChannel QMF Bank
In practice, various errors are generated in
this scheme
In addition to the coding error and errors
caused by transmission of the coded signals
through the channel, the QMF bank itself
introduces several errors due to the sampling
rate alterations and imperfect filters
We ignore the coding and the channel errors
10
Copyright S. K. Mitra
TwoChannel QMF Bank
We investigate only the errors caused by the
sampling rate alterations and their effects on
the performance of the system
To this end, we consider the QMF bank
structure without the coders and the
decoders as shown below
11
Copyright S. K. Mitra
Analysis of the TwoChannel
QMF Bank
Making use of the inputoutput relations of
the downsampler and the upsampler in the
zdomain we arrive at
Vk ( z ) H k ( z ) X ( z ),
1
1/ 2
1/ 2
U k ( z ) {Vk ( z ) Vk ( z )},
2
^
2
Vk ( z ) U k ( z )
12
k = 0, 1
Copyright S. K. Mitra
Analysis of the TwoChannel
QMF Bank
From the first and the last equations we
obtain after some algebra
^
1
Vk ( z ) {Vk ( z ) Vk ( z )}
2
1 {H k ( z ) X ( z ) H k ( z ) X ( z )}
2
13
The reconstructed output of the filter bank
is given by
^
^
Y ( z ) G0 ( z )V0 ( z ) G1( z )V1( z )
Copyright S. K. Mitra
Analysis of the TwoChannel
QMF Bank
From the two equations of the previous
slide we arrive at
1
Y ( z ) {H 0 ( z )G0 ( z ) H1( z )G1( z )}X ( z )
2
1
{H 0 ( z )G0 ( z ) H1( z )G1( z )}X ( z )
2
The second term in the above equation is
due to the aliasing caused by sampling rate
alteration
14
Copyright S. K. Mitra
Analysis of the TwoChannel
QMF Bank
The inputoutput equation of the filter bank
can be compactly written as
Y ( z ) T ( z ) X ( z ) A( z ) X ( z )
where T(z), called the distortion transfer
function,
function is given by
1
T ( z ) {H 0 ( z )G0 ( z ) H1( z )G1( z )}
2
15
and
1
A( z ) {H 0 ( z )G0 ( z ) H1( z )G1( z )}
2
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
Since the upsampler and the downsampler
are linear timevarying components, in
general, the 2channel QMF structure is a
linear timevarying system
It can be shown that the 2channel QMF
structure has a period of 2
However, it is possible to choose the
analysis and synthesis filters such that the
aliasing effect is canceled resulting in a
timeinvariant operation
16
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
To cancel aliasing we need to ensure that
A(z) = 0, i.e.,
H 0 ( z )G0 ( z ) H1( z )G1( z ) 0
For aliasing cancellation we can choose
G0 ( z )
H1 ( z )
G1 ( z )
H 0 ( z )
This yields
G0 ( z ) C ( z ) H1( z ), G1( z ) C ( z ) H 0 ( z ),
where C(z) is an arbitrary rational function
17
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
If the above relations hold, then the QMF
system is timeinvariant with an inputoutput relation given by
Y(z) = T(z)X(z)
where
T ( z ) 1 {H 0 ( z ) H1( z ) H1( z ) H 0 ( z )}
2
On the unit circle, we have
j
j
j
j
j ( )
j
Y (e ) T (e ) X (e ) T (e )  e
X (e )
18
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
If T(z) is an allpass function, i.e.,  T (e
with d 0 then
19
) d
Y (e j ) d  X (e j )
indicating that the output of the QMF bank
has the same magnitude response as that of
the input (scaled by d) but exhibits phase
distortion
The filter bank is said to be magnitude
preserving
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
If T(z) has linear phase, i.e.,
arg{T (e
)} ( )
then
j
j
arg{Y (e )} arg{X (e )}
The filter bank is said to be phasepreserving but exhibits magnitude distortion
20
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
If an aliasfree filter bank has no magnitude
and phase distortion, then it is called a
perfect reconstruction (PR) QMF bank
In such a case, T ( z ) dz resulting in
Y ( z ) dz X ( z )
In the timedomain, the inputoutput
relation for all possible inputs is given by
y[n] d x[n ]
21
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
Thus, for a perfect reconstruction QMF
bank, the output is a scaled, delayed replica
of the input
Example  Consider the system shown below
x[n ]
2
22
2
2
y[n ]
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
Comparing this structure with the general
QMF bank structure we conclude that here
we have
1
1
H 0 ( z ) 1, H1( z ) z , G0 ( z ) z , G1( z ) 1
Substituting these values in the expressions
for T(z) and A(z) we get
T ( z ) 1 ( z 1 z 1 ) z 1
A( z )
23
2
1
1 1
(z z ) 0
2
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree Filter Bank
Thus the simple multirate structure is an
aliasfree perfect reconstruction filter bank
However, the filters in the bank do not
provide any frequency selectivity
24
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
A very simple aliasfree 2channel QMF bank
is obtained when
H1( z ) H 0 ( z )
The above condition, in the case of a real
coefficient filter, implies
j
j ( )
 H1(e )  H 0 (e
)
indicating that if H 0 (z ) is a lowpass filter,
then H1(z ) is a highpass filter, and vice versa
25
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
The relation  H1(e j )  H 0 (e j ( ) )
j

H
(
e
) is a mirrorimage
indicates that 1
j

H
(
e
) with respect to /2, the
of 0
quadrature frequency
This has given rise to the name quadraturemirror filter bank
26
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
Substituting H1( z ) H 0 ( zin)
G0 ( z ) C ( z ) H1( z ), G1( z ) C ( z ) H 0 ( z ),
with C(z) = 1 we get
G0 ( z ) H1( z ), G1( z ) H1( z ) H 0 ( z )
The above equations imply that the two
analysis filters and the two synthesis filters are
essentially determined from one transfer
function
27
H 0 (z )
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
Moreover, if H 0 (z ) is a lowpass filter, then
G0 (z ) is also a lowpass filter and G1(z ) is a
highpass filter
The distortion function in this case reduces
to
T ( z ) 1 {H 02 ( z ) H12 ( z )} 1 {H 02 ( z ) H 02 ( z )}
2
28
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
A computationally efficient realization of
the above QMF bank is obtained by
realizing the analysis and synthesis filters in
polyphase form
Let the 2band Type 1 polyphase
representation of H 0 (z ) be given by
2
1
2
H 0 ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z )
29
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
Then from the relation H1( z ) H 0 ( z ) it
follows that
2
1
2
H1( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z )
Combining the last two equations in a
matrix form we get
2
H
(
z
)
E
(
z
)
0 1 1
0
H 0 ( z ) 1 1 z 1E ( z 2 )
1
30
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
Likewise, the synthesis filters can be
expressed in a matrix form as
1
2
2 1 1
G0 ( z ) G1( z ) z E1( z ) E0 ( z ) 1 1
Making use of the last two equations we
can redraw the twochannel QMF bank as
shown below
31
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
Making use of the cascade equivalences, the
above structure can be further simplified as
shown below
32
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
Substituting the polyphase representations
of the analysis filters we arrive at the
expression for the distortion function T(z) in
terms of the polyphase components as
1
T ( z ) 2 z E0 ( z ) E1( z )
33
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
1
Example  Let H 0 ( z ) 1 z
Its polyphase components are
2
2
E0 ( z ) 1, E1( z ) 1
Hence
2
1
2
1
H1( z ) H 0 ( z ) E0 ( z ) z E1( z ) 1 z
Likewise
1
2
2
1
G0 ( z ) z E1( z ) E0 ( z ) 1 z
1
G1( z ) z E1( z ) E0 ( z ) 1 z
34
Copyright S. K. Mitra
An AliasFree Realization
The distortion transfer function for this
realization is thus given by
1
T ( z ) 2 z E0 ( z ) E1( z ) 2 z
35
The resulting structure is a perfect
reconstruction QMF bank
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
If in the above aliasfree QMF bank H 0 ( z )
is a linearphase FIR filter, then its polyphase
components
and E0 ( z ,) are also
E1 ( linearz)
phase FIR transfer functions
In this case, T ( z ) 2 z 1E0 ( z 2 ) E1 ( z 2 )
exhibits a linearphase characteristic
As a result, the corresponding 2channel
QMF bank has no phase distortion
36
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
37
However, in general T (e j )  is not a
constant, and as a result, the QMF bank
exhibits magnitude distortion
We next outline a method to minimize the
residual amplitude distortion
Let H 0 ( z ) be a lengthN realcoefficient
linearphase FIR transfer function:
N 1
H 0 ( z ) n 0 h0 [n] z n
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
Note: H (can
0 z ) either be a Type 1 or a Type 2 linearphase FIR transfer function since it has to be a lowpass
filter
Then
satisfy the condition
h0[n]
h0[ N n]
In this case wehcan
0[ n]write
~ function, a real
j
N
/
2
In the above
is
the
amplitude
H 0 (e ) e
H 0 ()
function of
~
H 0 ()
38
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
The frequency response of the distortion
transfer function can now be written as
jN
e
T ( e j )
{ H 0 (e j ) 2 (1) N  H 0 (e j ( ) ) 2 }
2
From the above, it can be seen that if N is
even, then T (e j ) 0at = /2, implying
severe amplitude distortion at the output of
the filter bank
39
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
40
N must be odd, in which case we have
jN
e
T ( e j )
{ H 0 (e j ) 2  H 0 (e j ( ) ) 2 }
2
jN
e
{ H 0 (e j ) 2  H1 (e j ) 2 }
2
It follows from the above that the FIR 2channel QMF bank will be of perfect
reconstruction type if
 H 0 (e j ) 2  H1 (e j ) 2 1
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
Now, the 2channel QMF bank with linearphase
filters has no phase distortion, but will always
exhibit amplitude distortion unless
is a
constant for all
j
T (e )
If
is a very good lowpass filter with
H0 ( z)
in the passband and
in thej
j
 H 0 (e ) 0
 H 0 (e )then
1
stopband,
is a very good highpass
H1 ( z ) with the
filter with its passband coinciding
stopband of
, and viceversa
H0 ( z)
41
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
j
As a result, T (e ) 1/ 2 in the passbands
of H 0 ( z ) and H1 ( z )
Amplitude distortion occurs primarily
in the transition band of these filters
Degree of distortion determined by the
amount of overlap between their squaredmagnitude responses
42
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
This distortion can be minimized by
controlling the overlap, which in turn can be
controlled by appropriately choosing the
passband edge of H 0 ( z )
One way to minimize the amplitude
distortion is to iteratively adjust the filter
coefficients h0[n] of H 0 ( z )on a computer
such that
43
 H 0 (e j ) 2  H1(e j ) 2 1
is satisfied for all values of
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
To this end, the objective function to be
minimized can be chosen as a linear
combination of two functions:
(1) stopband attenuation of H 0 ( z ) , and
(2) sum of squared magnitude responses of
H 0 ( z ) and H1(z )
44
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
One such objective function is given by
1 (1 ) 2
where
and
H (e
j 2
) d
2 1 H 0 (e
and 0 <
0 < 1, and
j 2
2
2
) d
>0
for some small
) H1(e
s
2
45
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
Since T (e j )is symmetric with respect to
/2, the second integral in the objective
function can be replaced with
2 2
/ 2
1 H
0
2
j
(e )
H1
2
2
(e )
d
After has been made very small by the
optimization procedure, both and
1
2
will also be very small
46
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
Using this approach, Johnston has designed
a large class of linearphase FIR filters
meeting a variety of specifications and has
tabulated their impulse response
coefficients
Program 10_9 can be used to verify the
performance of Johnstons filters
47
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
Example  The gain responses of the length12 linearphase FIR lowpass filter 12B and
its powercomplementary highpass filter
obtained using Program 10_9 are shown
below
20
Gain,dB
H (z)
H (z)
20
40
60
48
80
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
The program then computes the amplitude
distortion  H 0 (e j )2  H1 (e j )2 in dB as
shown below
AmplitudedistortionindB
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
49
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
From the gain response plot it can be seen
that the stopband edge s of the lowpass
filter12B is about 0.71, which corresponds
to a transition bandwidth of
(s 0.5) / 2 0.105
The minimum stopband attenuation is
approximately 34 dB
50
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree FIR QMF Bank
The amplitude distortion function is very
close to 0 dB in both the passbands and the
stopbands of the two filters, with a peak
value of 0.02 dB
51
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
Under the aliasfree conditions of
G0 ( z ) H1 ( z ), G1 ( z ) H 0 ( z )
and the relation
, the distortion
H ( z ) H 0 ( z )
function T(z) is given 1by
1
) 2 zfunction,
E0 ( z then
) E1 (its
z magnitude
)
If T(z) isTan( zallpass
response is a constant, and as a result its
corresponding QMF bank has no magnitude
distortion
52
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
Let the polyphase components E0 ( z ) and
E1 ( z ) H 0of
( z)
be expressed as
E0 ( z ) 1A 0( z ), E1 ( z ) 1A 1( z )
2
2
with A 0( z ) and A 1( z ) being stable allpass
functions
Thus, H 0 ( z ) 1 A 0 ( z 2 ) z 1A 1 ( z 2 )
2
H1 ( z ) 1 A 0 ( z 2 ) z 1A 1 ( z 2 )
2
53
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
In matrix form, the analysis filters can be
expressed as
2)
H
(
z
)
A
(
z
0 1 1 1
0
H 0 ( z ) 2 1 1 z 1A ( z 2 )
1
The corresponding synthesis filters in
matrix form are given by
1
1
1
2
2
G0 ( z ) G1( z ) 2 z A 1( z ) A 0 ( z ) 1 1
54
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
Thus, the synthesis filters are given by
G0 ( z ) 1 [A 0( z 2 ) z 1A 1( z 2 )] H 0 ( z )
G1 ( z )
2
1
[ A 0( z 2 ) z 1A 1( z 2 )] H1 ( z )
2
The realization of the magnitudepreserving
2channel QMF bank is shown below
55
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
From
H 0 ( z ) 1 A 0 ( z 2 ) z 1A 1 ( z 2 )
it can be seen that the lowpass transfer
function H 0 (z ) has a polyphaselike
decomposition, except here the polyphase
components are stable allpass transfer
functions
56
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
It has been shown earlier that a boundedreal
(BR) transfer function
of0 (odd
H0 ( z) P
z ) / D( z )
order, with no common factors between its
numerator and denominator, can be expressed in
the form
if it satisfies the 2powersymmetry condition
H 0 ( z ) 1 A 0 ( z 2 ) z 1A 1 ( z 2 )
1
H 0 (azsymmetric
) H 0 ( z ) numerator
H 0 ( z ) H 0 ( z ) 1
and has
P0 (z )
57
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
It has also been shown that any oddorder
elliptic lowpass halfband filter H 0 (z ) with
a frequency response specification given by
j
1 p  H (e ) 1, for 0 p
j
 H (e ) s , for s
p s
and satisfying
the
conditions
2
and s 4 p (1 p ) can always be
expressed in the form
H 0 ( z ) 1 A 0 ( z 2 ) z 1A 1 ( z 2 )
58
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
The poles of the elliptic filter satisfying the
two conditions on bandedges and ripples lie
on the imaginary axis
Using the poleinterlacing property
discussed earlier, on can readily identify the
expressions for the two allpass transfer
functions A 0(z ) and A 1(z )
59
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
Example  The frequency response
specifications of a realcoefficient lowpass
halfband filter are given by: p 0.4 ,
s 0.6 , and s 0.0155
2
From s 4 p (1 p ) we get p 0.00012013
In dB, the passband and stopband ripples are
Rp=0.0010435178 and Rs=36.193366
60
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
Using the Mfile ellipord we determine
the minimum order of the elliptic lowpass
filter to be 5
Next, using the Mfile ellip the transfer
function of the lowpass filter is determined
whose gain response is shown below
Realhalfbandfilter
Gain,dB
61
20
40
60
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
The poles obtained using the function
tf2zp are at z = 0, z = j 0.486625263 ,
and z = j 0.486625263
The polezero plot obtained using zplane
is shown below
ImaginaryPart
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
62
0
RealPart
Copyright S. K. Mitra
AliasFree IIR QMF Bank
Using the poleinterlacing property we
arrive at the transfer functions of the two
allpass filters as given below:
2
z 0.2368041466
2
A 0( z )
2
1 0.2368041466 z
A 1( z 2 )
63
z 2 0.7149039978
1 0.7149039978 z 2
Copyright S. K. Mitra