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amplifier usually consisting of one or more differential

amplifiers an usually followed by a level translator and

an output.

The operational amplifier is a versatile device that can

be used to amplify dc as well as ac input signals and

was originally designed for performing mathematical

operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication,

and integration.

With the addition of suitable feed back components, the

modern day op-amp can be used for a variety of

applications, such as ac and dc signal amplification,

active filters, oscillators, comparators and others.

2

amp. (op-amp). (1)

amp. (op-amp). (2)

Prefix

Designator

Suffix

MC

741C

Prefix

Manufacturer

Code Application

Temp.(C)

AD/OP

Analog Devices

Commercial

0 to 70

CA/HA

Harris

Industrial

-25 to 85

uA

Fairchild

Military

-55 to 125

LM

National Semiconductor

MC

ON Semiconductor

Code

Package Type

NE/SE

Signetics

D,VD

OPA

Burr-Brown

RC/RM

Raytheon

N,P,VP

Plastic DIP

SG

Silicon General

DM

Micro SMP

TI

Texas Instruments

Small scale integration SSI< 10

components

Medium scale integration MSI < 100

components

Large scale integration LSI > 100

components

Very large scale integration VLSI >

1000 components

9

When the difference between the two input signals is

zero, ideally the output is zero also.

However, in a real op-amp, because of manufacturing

methods, this is not the case.

For a 741, the output voltage when vid =0 is about 2mV.

This can be measured by tying both inputs of the

amplifier to ground and measuring the output voltage.

This is the output offset voltage. This voltage is then

divided by the open-loop gain of the device to get the

input offset voltage.

10

voltage.

Vio

Vout(offset)

Av

11

Because the ideal op amp has an infinite input resistance, it

draws no current (it looks like an open circuit).

Each input draws a small amount of current.

The difference between the amount of current drawn into the

positive and negative input terminals is called the input offset

current (Iio = IB1 IB2).

This can cause errors in the output voltage.

The input offset current for the 741C is 200nA.

As the matching between the two input terminals is improved,

the difference between IB1 & IB2 becomes smaller, that is the Iio

value decreases.

12

the inverting and noninverting input terminals of

the op-amp.

the average of the both input currents

and is calculated as.

IBIAS = (I

B1

+I

)/2

B2

13

Differential Input

Resistance:

The input resistance that can be measured at

either the inverting and non inverting terminal

with the other terminal connected to ground.

For 741C the input resistance is relatively high

2M.

For FET input op amps this value is amazingly

large. For example 1000G for AF771 FET input.

14

One of the feature of the 741 family

op-amp is an offset voltage null

capability.

The offset voltage adjustment range is

the range through which the input

offset voltage can be adjusted by

varying the potentiometer.

For 741C the offset voltage

adjustment range is 15mV.

15

When the same voltage is applied to both

input terminal the voltage is called a

common mode voltage, and the op amp

is said to be operating in common mode

configuration.

For 741 the range of the input commonmode voltage is 13 V maximum.

Is the range of common-mode voltages

over which the offset specifications apply.

16

The measure of an amplifiers ability to

reject common-mode signals is a parameter

called the common mode rejection ratio

(CMRR).

The Ideal Differential Amplifier provides

a very high gain for desired signals (single

ended or differential) and zero gain for

common mode signals.

Practical Diff Amps, however, do exhibit a

very small common-mode gain (usually much

less than 1), while providing a high

differential voltage gain (usually several

17

thousand).

Mathematically, CMRR can express as:

EQ 1) CMRR = Av(d) / Acm

The higher the CMRR, the better.

A very high value of CMRR means that the

differential gain Av(d) is high and commonmode gain Acm is low.

The CMRR is often expressed in decibels

(dB) as

For741Cprecisionop

ampCMRRis120dB

18

SupplyVoltageRejectionRatio

The changes in op-amps input offset voltage

(Vio ), caused by the variations in supply

voltage called supply voltage rejection ratio

(SVRR)

PSRR = Power supply rejection ratio

PSS= Power supply sensitivity

19

you how well the op-amp filters out noise coming through

the power pins.

Ex: You're using a 12V supply with 100mV of ripple at

120Hz. How will this affect your op-amp circuit? With a

PSRR of 96db (inv_log(96/20) = 63,000) the ripple seen by

the input will be reduced by a factor of 63,000. So, with a

100mV ripple and a PSRR of 96db the op-amp inputs would

see a ripple of 1.6mV. If you have a gain of 100 then the

output will have a ripple of 160mV even when there is no

input to the op-amp. This is why you want to filter you're

power supply well and have a good PSRR. Note: The PSRR

isn't constant with frequency. It's usually specified at 120Hz

but drops off at higher frequencies.

20

LargeSignalVoltageGain

Sincetheopampamplifiesthedifference

voltagebetweenthetwoinputterminals,the

voltagegainoftheamplifierisdefinedas

Vo

A

Vid

21

OutputVoltageSwing

Itisthemaximumpeakoutputvoltagethat

theoperationalamplifierproduceswithout

saturatingORclipping.Itistypicallytwo

diodesvoltagedropslessthanthe

correspondingsupplyvoltages.

For741Cbetween13Vto+13V

22

OutputResistance

OutputresistanceRio,istheequivalent

resistancethatcanbemeasuredbetweenthe

outputterminaloftheopampandthe

ground.Itis75for741Copamp

23

OutputShortCircuitCurrent

ItisthemaximumDCoutputcurrentthat

canbesuppliedtoaload.

Isc=25mAfor741C.

24

Slew Rate

An ideal op-amp has an infinite frequency response. This means that

no matter how fast the input changes, the output will be able to keep

up. In a real op-amp, this is not the case.

If the input signal changes too fast then the output will not be able to

keep up. This is defined as slewing and it results in distortion of the

output waveform. Stated more formally,

Slew Rate = SR = dvo/dt maximum

or the maximum rate at which the output can change without distorting.

This can be measured by applying a high frequency square wave

signal. The frequency of the waveform should be increase until the

waveform becomes a triangular wave. The slope of the triangular

waveform is the slew rate. (SR = V/T)

One of the few drawbacks of 741C is low slew rate (0.5 V/us), which

limits its uses in high-frequency applications.

25

Slew Rate

Slew rate is the measure of how fast the output

voltage can change in a response to a change at

either signal input.

Vout V pk sin t

dVout

V pk cos t

dt

slew rate V pk max

f max

slew rate

2 Vpk

V/s or V/s

26

27

V pk 8V

f max

9.95kHz

2 Vpk

2 8V

V pk 100mV

f max

slew rate

0.5V /s

796kHz

2 Vpk

2 100mV

28

29

The

gain bandwidth product (GB) is the bandwidth of

the op-amp when the voltage gain is 1.

Approximately 1 MHz.

The frequency response of the open loop gain is such

that the frequency decreases with gain. By looking at

the graph in Figure , it can be seen that the op-amp

displays the property that the open-loop gain times the

frequency is a constant. This constant is defined as the

gain-bandwidth product and it is 1 x 10 6 for the 741

amplifier.

30

31

InputOffsetVoltageDrift:

Also referred to as average Temperature Coefficient of

Input Offset Voltage ( and Current).

Vio / T = 0.5 V/C

Iio / T = 12pA/C

For precision 741C.

How much the input offset changes with temperature. For

the LM741A the worst case drift is 15uV/C. So, if your

circuit had to operate from 0-60C the input offset could

change by 15uV/C * 60C = 0.9mV over the 60C

temperature range.

32

AverageInputOffsetCurrent

Drift:

The average of how fast the input current

changes with temperature (worst case about

0.5nA/C).

33

ChannelSeparation

Itisthemeasurehowwellcrosstalkis

minimizedinpackageshavingmorethan

oneinternaloperationalamplifiers.

Thisparameterisspecifiedinthedata

sheetsofdualandquadopampssuchasthe

A772andAF774.

34

35

36

KA741

Specification

sheet.

37

38

39

Open-loop configurations

Differential Amplifier

Inverting Amplifier

Non-Inverting Amplifier

40

Differential Amplifier

41

Inverting Amplifier

42

Non-inverting Amplifier

43

44

45

46

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