Stepper Motors

By SURESHA S B 2nd M.Tech C.A.I.D

What is a Stepper Motor?

The stepper motor is a motor which takes input pulses and then takes proportional steps to input these signals. You can use for positioning and/or speed control for most any applications. The stepper motor needs a power circuit and a sequence circuit for changing phase.

Stepper Motors
Movement Generation  Step Mode  Torque Generation  Characteristics  Reduced Duty Cycle  Synchronous Motor

Movement Generation

N S S N N S S S N N S NS N S

 rotor follows the stator field  one step ⇒ invert magnetic field in 1 coil  for the next step invert magnetic field in the other coil  A stepper motor always needs electronic control.  step angle depends on number of poles -> fixed by construction

N N

Movement Generation
Unipolar Principle

motor coils are unipolar

every coil end has only one polarity (”+” or ”ground (-)”)

PhA1 (=GND) (=open)

+

PhA2 (=open) (=GND)

S N

N S

Movement Generation
Bipolar Principle
 

motor coils are bipolar every coil end will be positive (”+”) or ground (”-”)

PhA1

PhA2

GND +

GND +

N S

S N

Movement Generation
Tin Can Motor - Step Generation
front side teeth back side teeth N S
SSN N N NS S S N N S
N S

N S

if there is only 1 magnetic system... motor is able to start in both directions direction is undefined

S NN N N SS S S S N N S N

S N

S S S S N SNN N NS S NS N N N N

N S

N S

N S

N S

N S

S N

N S S S S S NN N N NS S

Movement Generation
Tin Can Motor
Stator Core Bobbin Shaft

Coil

Permanent Magnet

Movement Generation
Tin Can Motor - Step Generation
2 magnetic systems = 2 stators...
S N
N S

N S

N S

electrical phase shift 90 ° direction is defined by coil control sequencing
N S

N S S N N S N S
N S

control pattern (bipolar motor):
S S N N

S N N S S S N N

S N

coil 1 coil 2 direction CCW

S N N S S S S SN N

N S

N S

S N

N S

N S

N S

N S

N S

NS NS

S S NS N N N N N S

S S N N

coil 1 coil 2
stator 1 front side teeth back side teeth

direction CW
stator 2

S N

Movement Generation
Step Loss

N S N S N S N S S N

 Rotor follows the stator field  Rotor reaches the end stop  noise  Rotor is not able to follow the stator field  Rotor swings back  Motor will always loose n·4 steps

S

N
S N

Movement Generation
Step Loss

N S N S N S N S S N

 Rotor follows the stator field  Rotor reaches the end stop  noise  Rotor is not able to follow the stator field  Rotor swings back  Motor will always loose n·4 steps

S

N
S N

Step Mode
Full Step Mode

Step angle = catalogue value

N S S N N S S S N N S NS N S

I1 / I1max
1 0 -1

N N

I2 / I2max

1 0 -1

coil current in a bipolar motor

Step Mode
Half Step Mode

Step angle = half catalogue value

N S N S N N N S S S N S N S NS SN S S N S N S

I1 / I1max
1 0 -1

N N

I2 / I2mx a

1 0 -1

coil current in a bipolar motor

Torque Generation
Torque vs. Angle
Mel (torque) MH (holding torque)

-2

-1 -MH
S

1

2

3

4

α αS

S

N N
S

N N

N
S

S

N N

N N

S

N

N

N

N

N

S
S

S

S

S

N N
S

S

N N
N

S

N

N

S

N

N

S

S

N

N

N

S

S

N

S

S

N

N

S

N

S

S

N

N

S

S

S

N

S

S

S

N
S

S

S

N

N

S

S

S

Torque Generation Positioning Accurancy

Mel (torque) MH (holding torque) Friction

-2

-1 -MH 2∆ α

1

2

α3 αS

4

α αS

∆ α ...Step Angle Tolerance

Accuracy depends on friction and motor tolerances (5-7% of step angle). Tolerance exists at every position, but it will not sum up!

Characteristics
Torque
torque
Resonances may influence application! reduced duty cycle = increased power consumption (pull out graph)

pull-in

pull-out

with chopper (pull out graph)

f1

fA

f2

fB

frequency

Characteristics
Output Power
power torque

Motor output power : P = M · ω

with ω =

2⋅Π ⋅ f z

M...torque

ω ...angular velocity
f...step frequency z...steps per revolution

frequency

Glossary -4
Torque Pull-Output Torque Pull-in Torque Max. Starting Frequency

Holding Torque

Speed

Advantages

They produce the highest torque at low speeds holding torque (not present in DC motors) Rotor has no winding, commutator or brushes – quite, robust and reliable operation

Applications
   

Precise positioning and speed control Open loop position control Torque : 1µNm to 40 Nm Power : 1w to 2500w

Applications
     

Film Drive Optical Scanner Printers ATM Machines Computer peripherals IC fabrication

Applications

robotics digital control systems tape drivers disk drives tool positioning process control X-Y recorders

     

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