You are on page 1of 22

PHARMACEUTICAL CARE 2

INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR PHARMACISTS

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course deals with the study of basic
concepts of interpersonal relationships and
effective communication.
It covers a variety of areas of learning
interpersonal communications and
acquiring skills needed by pharmacists to
meet responsibilities of patient-centered
pharmaceutical care services.

OBJECTIVE
Explain the various assumptions, basic concepts, theoretical perspectives
and contemporary issues surrounding professional pharmacists-client
relationships.
Discuss the communication process
Demonstrate the effective listening, writing and speaking skills with
special attention to the application of these to patient interaction and
relationships with other health care professionals.
Define and describe characteristics of therapeutic communication
Identify the purposes of therapeutic communication
Demonstrate the ability to establish patient relationships that create true
partnerships with patients in helping them reach their therapeutic goal.
Apply assertiveness skills when needed when pharmacists take and
active role in patient care.

PHARMACEUTICAL CARE
The responsible provision of drug therapy for
the purpose of achieving definite outcomes
that improve quality of life
Involves professional care decision beyond
enhanced therapeutic outcomes.
A clear emphasis on the patients welfare, a
patient advocacy role with a clear ethical
mandate to protect the patient from the
harmful effects of drug misadventuring

PROFESSION..
Specialized practitioners that develop and provide and
array of significant, unstandardized personal services
that were central to human values.
Means to testify on behalf of or to stand for
something.
Members of a profession pledge or profess their
fundamental commitment to serving society.
People who are professionals stand for something and
vow not only to provide their clients with knowledge but
also to use a particular body of learning to solve a
specific range of human problems.

PHARMACY AS A PROFESSION..
Procurement, storage, and compounding of drug products.
Dispensing drug products and managing the supply of
medicines
Justifiable pride in being responsible and accountable for
controlling drug distribution.
Focus on assuring safe, effective and cost-efficient
therapeutic outcomes for their patients.
Providing pharmaceutical care, which requires accepting
responsibilities for providing drug therapy for the purpose
of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patients
quality of life.

ROLE OF A PHARMACIST
Centered upon the knowledge and skills
needed to compound drug products.
Advanced role in quality assurance
ensuring that the drugs provided to
patients are safe and accurately
dispensed.
Disease and patient oriented approach to
pharmaceutical decision-making.

PHARMACIST
Medical professionals are beginning to
realize that te success of their medical
interventions with their patients depends
as much upon interpersonal, value-based
relationship.
In practice, pharmacists assign priorities to
these values as they encounter their
patients or when the engage in specific
decision making situations.

VALUES

ATTITUDES

PROFESSIONAL
BEHAVIOR

ALTRUISM concern for


the welfare of others

Commitment
Compassion
Generosity
Perseverance

Gives full attention on


patients
Assists other health care
personnel
Sensitive to social issues

EQUALITY having the


same rights, privileges
or status

Fairness
Self-esteem
tolerance

Provides services based


on needs Relates to
others without
discriminating

ESTHETICS qualities
of objects, events, and
persons that provide
satisfaction

Appreciation
Creativity
Sensitivity

Creates supportive
patient care
environment

FREEDOM - Capacity
to exercise choice

Openness
Self-direction

Respects each
individuals autonomy

VALUES

ATTITUDES

PROFESSIONAL
BEHAVIOR

HUMAN DIGNITY - inherent


worth and uniqueness of an
individual

Empathy
Kindness
Trust

Respects the right of privacy


Maintains confidentiality

JUSTICE - Upholding moral


and legal principle

Integrity
Morality

Acts as a health care advocate


Allocates resources fairly
Reports incompetent, unethical
and illegal practices

TRUTH Faithfulness to fact or


reality

Accountability
Honesty

Documents actions accurately


Protects the public from
misinformation about pharmacy

CARING AS A PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILTY


Care often appears to be a more important
regulative notion for determining the basis
and direction of health-related activities
that might be morally justified.
A significant notion that reminds us that
medicine serves as one of the ways we
can help others maintain basic physical
and psychological integrity.

UNDERSTANDIN
G OUR PATIENT

MASLOWS HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS


Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people.
He believed that people possess a set of motivation
systems unrelated to rewards or unconscious desires.
Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to
achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a
person seeks to fulfill the next one, and so on.
One must satisfy lower level basic needs before
progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once
these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be
able to reach the highest level called self-actualization.

MASLOWS HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS


The originalhierarchy of needsfive-stage model
includes:
1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink,
shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order,
law, stability, freedom from fear.
3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy,
affection and love, - from work group, family, friends,
romantic relationships.

MASLOWS HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS


4. Esteem needs - achievement, mastery,
independence, status, dominance,
prestige, self-respect, respect from others.
5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing
personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking
personal growth and peak experiences.

MASLOWS HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS

SIGMUND FREUDS TRANSFERENCE & COUNTER TRANSFERENCE

Normal phenomena that may arise during the course of


therapeutic relationship.

1.TRANSFERENCE -

is the transference of old


feelings, conflicts and attitudes into present relationships,
situations, and circumstances.
-. Evolves from unresolved or unsatisfactory childhood experiences
in relationships with parents or other important figures.
-. people may be considered habit-forming in how they relate and
interact with others. These habits involve the development of
attitudes and preconceived ideas based on the learning and
retention of information from past relationships. This may
precipitate behavioral and thought patterns in subsequent
relationships, even though certain actions and attitude.

COUNTER TRANSFERENCE
Countertransference involves the same principles,
except the direction of the transference is
reversed.
Countertransference, a normal occurrence as
well, involves the medical professionals
reactions, behaviors, thoughts, and feelings
toward the patient.
Unresolved conflicts from the medical
professionals past may evolve as
countertransference.

STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


Sigmund Freud believes that there are 5
stages in the formation of personality.
1. ORAL/DEPENDENCY
-. Takes place from birth to age 2
-. Child explores the world using their
mouth
-. If needs are not met during this stage,
one goes through life trying to meet them

STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


2. ANAL/POTTY TRAINING
-. The child learns to control their bodily functions
-. iIf not handled properly or if the child is
traumatized at this stage, then he or she might
become anal retentive, controlling, or rigid.
-. The child canalso develop
obsessivecompulsivebehaviors.
-. Dreams of being out of control or trying to keep
things in order are common.

STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


3. Phallic Stage
Between the ages of 3 to 5, the child becomes aware of
male and female.
Personality is fully developed by this stage.
This stage is also classified by the Oedipus and Electra
Complexes.
The Oedipus represents a male child's love for his
mother and the fear/jealousy towards his father. The
Electra is the female version where the female child has
anger toward her mother and exhibits "penis envy".

STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT


4. Latency Period
Little new development is observable during this stage.
5. Genital
Starting from age 12 to the peak of puberty, this stage is
classified by the reawakening of sexual interest.
Freud believes that the motivating force of a dream is wish
fulfillment.
Issues of power, lack of control, or unsatisfactory love may
manifest in dreams as a way of satisfying these needs.
Thoughts that are repressed during the day may also find a
way into your dream as a way to getting fulfillment.
Freud believes that every imagery and symbol that appears
in a dream have a sexual connotation.For example,
anxiety dreams are seen as a sign of repressed sexual