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What is

Problem-Based-Learning(PBL)?
A

teaching method in which students gain


knowledge and skills by working for an
extended period of time to investigate and
respond to a complex question, problem,or
challenge

Students dont just learn


the course content, they
learn how to learn!

Historical background
of pbl
First application of PBL
most strict and pure form of PBL
was in medical schoolsrigorously(tightly) test
the knowledge base of graduates

Keep up with new information in their


field, and the skill of life-long learning is
particularly important for them

Why do we need
to use pbl

Resulted from the findings of research : Bok 1989- Students retain(mengekalkan) little of what
they learn when taught in a traditional lecture
format
Schmidt 1983- Students often do not
appropriately use the knowledge they have
learned
Students forget of what is learned, instructors
should create conditions:that optimize retrieval
appropriate use of the knowledge in FUTURE

professional practice

Conditions that information theory links to subsequent


retrieval and appropriate use of new information (Schmidt
1983):

1.

2.

3.

Activation of prior knowledge students apply knowledge to


understand new information
Similarity of contexts in which information is learned and later
applied - research shows that knowledge is much more likely to be
remembered or recalled in context in which it was originally
learned (Godden and Baddeley 1975).
Opportunity to elaborate on information that is learned during
the problem-solving process - elaborations provide redundancy in
memory structure, reduces forgetting, and facilitates retrieval.
ELABORATION occurs in discussion with peers, peer-teaching,
EXCHANGING views, and preparing essays about what students have
learned during the problem-solving process.

Characteristics of PBL

Learning - student centered

small student groups

Teachers are facilitators or guides

Problems form - organizing focus and stimulus for learning

New information is acquired through self-directed learning

Shifts away from short, isolated teacher centered lessons

Teaches students to apply what they have learned in


university to life-long endeavors

PBL In Classroom

I.

These are several models of how PBL works in the


classroom:students work through a series of problems designed
to:
a)
b)
c)
d)

II.
III.

be authentic (i.e. address real-world concerns)


target defined areas of the curriculum
be "ill-structured" - they must be defined and analyzed
through inquiry from a minimum of presenting information
approximate the real world, so that students find
themselves actually engaged in the problem and not just
observers of it

the role of the instructor changes from a "sage on the


stage" to a "guide on the side"
students work collaboratively in small groups toward
the problem's resolution

PBL PROCESS
PROCESS

PURPOSE

Students read and address problem,


without background preparation

students will encode and organize

Students discuss and analyze problem


using prior knowledge and resources
available.

Development of :cognitive skills for problem-solving


process
self-monitoring skills to identify the
learning needs
habitual student-initiated
questioning

information in useful ways


find what they know and what they
dont know
Misconceptions (salah faham) can be
corrected in discussion of the problem

Students decide what they need to Self-directed study


know and where they might best

find the information. They decide


which resources to use (people,
published papers)
Students revisit problem with new
information and knowledge acquired
during self-study

New organization of information to


problem-solve

Students should think about how what Reflection


Self-assessment
they learned has added to their
understanding

FACTS
What we know

IDEAS
What we think

LEARNING NEEDS
What we need to know

Identify Problem
Generate Ideas

Reevaluate the Problem

Organize/Prioritize Ideas
Derive Learning Needs
Learning Resources

New Facts

New Ideas

Test Ideas

Revise Ideas

Traditional

Tutor

Students

PBL

Tutor

Students

Advantages of PBL
Emphasis

on Meaning-Not Facts
Increased Self Direction
Higher Comprehension and Better Skill
Development
Interpersonal Skills and Teamwork
Self-Motivated Attitude
Facilitator-Student Relationship
Level of Learning Increases

Disavantages of PBL
Finding
Faculty
The

is

enough tutors - 1 for each 6 students


busy with traditional curriculum

range of topics which can be discussed


a limiting factor - quality control is difficult

Heavy on library, computer resources,


support
Inherent conflict with lectures - waste of time

Reliable Vs Unreliable
Sources?
RELIABLE

UNRELIABLE

True information

False information

When researching, you always

Authors may not have a

need to be sure that you are

thorough knowledge or full

getting your information

understanding of the topic

from reliable sources


Example: Journals with complete Examples: WIKIPEDIA
specification
anyone can post information on
Details about:
the internet
Author
we need to be CRITICAL
Publisher
READERS in order to determine

How To Identify
Reliable Vs Unreliable
Sources?

RELIABLE

online sites and organizations,


look at the URLs ending:
Eg:
.edu-education organisation
.gov- reliable government website
.org- non-profit organization
Online journals and magazines
contain a bibliography for every article

News sources
Every television and print news source has a website

Beware! Sometimes their focus is to entertain


rather than inform

UNRELIABLE

online sources with an URL


.com

.html-

website

General examples :
Wikipedia
Blog

Facebook
Forums

METHODOLOGY
Problem
Class

Based Learning on Reliable sources

Details
KPS 3014: Management of Learning
(Pengurusan Pembelajaran)
DR.MUHAMMED YUSUF (Group:P)
Title : Information of students in class
Total student

51

Male

22

Female

29

Groups

13 (3-4/group)

THE WORM ARTICLE


(CONCLUSION)

Students was applied the Traditional method as


well as modern method(PBL ) to make their
conclusion
Traditional method:
All

the groups Unreliable sources


Support answer with basic fact of the article

Eg:
No author
No publisher
No date was state ,etc

Modern method(PBL)
Apply

creative and critical thinking


Make some specific/detailed question from the article
Analyze
Based on that , they made an effective conclusion
Eg:
Background of the author
Measurement tools that were used

As the conclusion the modern method (PBL) helps


the student to think more deeply on the topic and
they can make a decision with factual reasons.
So that this type of tutorials makes student to think
more rationally and accept high level of learning.