Introduction to AIR

‡ All India Radio (abbreviated as AIR), officially known as Akashvani is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India), an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.

‡ Today, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. ‡ One of the largest radio networks in the world one of the largest radio networks in the world ‡ There are five regional headquarters for All India Radio, namely in the North Zone in New Delhi; the East Zone in Kolkata; the North-East Zone in Guwahati, Assam; the West Zone in Mumbai; and the South Zone in Chennai.

‡ InHistory first radio broadcasting India the of radio club was started working inIn Bombay in June 1923

India

‡ In November 1923 Calcutta radio club went on air and the Madras radio club started working on 31st July 1924 for the time period of 2 hours 30 minutes. but closed down due to the financial reasons. ‡ ON 23 July 1927 broadcasting started by Indian broadcasting service in Bombay and Calcutta .

‡ IBC was a financial failure in spite of a loan from the government and was closed down in year 1930.IBC was a private company. ‡ But under the pressure of general public, radio program producers, radio dealers and manufacturers the govt. took over the Bombay and Calcutta station in 1930. ‡ British Govt.¶s Department of Labour and Industries started operating them as the Indian State Broadcasting Corporation

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STARTING OF ALL INDIA RADIO ‡ Lionel Fielden was the first person who realized the importance of radio and persuade the govt. to do something for the betterment of the radio programs. ‡ The name Indian broadcasting service was changed to All India Radio in June 8 ,1936. ‡ Lionel Fielden started short wave service in 1938 and programs went on air from Lucknow and Madras radio stations on 2nd April 1938 and on June 16, 1938

‡ In 1939, tiruchi radio station was also established and in same the external service division in Delhi was started. ‡ A.S.Bokhari was the first ever Indian Director general of radio who took over the charge of radio from Lionel Fielden ‡ A new broadcasting house was built on Parliament street, New Delhi. ‡ On 3rd June 1947 , LordMountbatten,Jawaharlal Nehru and Mohammad Ali Jinnah made historical broadcast on the partition of India.

‡ NINE DECADES OF BROADCASTING ‡ The phenomenal growth achieved by All India Radio through decades has made it one of the largest media organizations in the world. Today AIR reaches out to 99.14% of the population spread over about ‡ 91.79% of the area with the help of 231 broadcasting Centres. Major landmarks of broadcasting are listed below

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1920-1930s June,1923 : Broadcast of programs by the Radio Club of Bombay. November, 1923 : Calcutta Radio Club put out programs. July 31, 1924 : Broadcasting Service initiated by the Madras Presidency Radio Club. July 23, 1927 : Indian Broadcast Company (IBC), Bombay Station inaugurated by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India. August 26, 1927 : Calcutta Station of IBC inaugurated.

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‡ 1930s March 1, 1930 : IBC went into liquidation. April 1, 1930 : Indian State Broadcasting Service under Department of Industries and Labour commenced on experimental basis. March, 1935 : A new department ³Controller of Broadcast´ constituted. August 30, 1935 : Lionel Fielden appointed as the first controller of Broadcasting in India. September 10, 1935 : Akashvani Mysore, a private radio station, was set up. The word Akashavani was coined by Professor Dr. M.V. Gopalaswamy for his radio station in Mysore during 1936.

‡ January 19, 1936 : First news bulletin broadcast from AIR. ‡ June 8, 1936 : Indian State Broadcasting Service became All India Radio. ‡ August 1, 1937 : Central News Organisation came into existence. ‡ November, 1937 : AIR came under Department of Communication. ‡ October 1, 1939 : External Service started with Pusthu broadcast.

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‡ 1940s October 24, 1941 : AIR came under Department of I&B. January 1, 1942 : Akashvani Mysore was taken over by Maharaja of Mysore. February 23, 1946 : AIR came under the Department of Information & Arts. September 10, 1946 : Department of Information and Arts changed to Department of Information and Broadcasting. 1947 (at the time of partition) : Six Radio Stations in India (Delhi,Bombay,Calcutta,Madras)

‡ Tiruchirapalli and Lucknow) and three Radio Stations in Pakistan (Peshawar, Lahore and Dacca) ‡ September, 1948 : Central News Organisation (CNO) was split up into two Divisions, 1.News Service Division (NSD) and 2. External Service Division (ESD), ‡ the former remained responsible for the news output of ESD as well.

Role played by Radio after independence(1950 -2010)
Indian radio broadcasting in independent India set the parameters for the succeeding role of television in the nation. At Independence, the Congress government under Jawaharlal Nehru followed three major goals:

firstly, to achieve political integration secondly, to attain economic development; and finally, to achieve social modernisation.

Achievement of First Objective
In those days radio was considered as an integral medium of communication, primarily due to the absence of any motion medium. All the national affairs and social changes were informed through the waves of broadcast media. Within no time, popularity of radio spread nationwide. Indian radio proved to be a prime medium of social integration.

Indian Radio took birth and was promoted by the government at its best for the objective of political nation building. National integration and the development of a "national consciousness" happened to be the primary objective of All India Radio.

Broadcasting was organized as the solitary reason of the chief planner of this process of political integration - the State.

The mission of broadcasting helped to overcome the urgent crisis of political volatility that followed Independence and cultivated the long-term progression of political modernization and nation building that was the prevailing ideology of the newly formed nation.

Second & Third Objective- Development of the Country

Indian radio also took up the task of aiding in the development of economic scenario. The Indian Constitution was adopted in 1950 and authorized a strong role for the Indian State in the economic development of the country.

Third Objective - AIR was specially designed program to contribute to the process of social modernization
The main problem was that the old ideas were influencing the young minds thus hindering the process of social change and modernization. The role of broadcasting provided an inlet for the flow of modern ideas.

Initially Programs were broadcast twice a week for an hour a day on welfare topics related to community health, citizens duties and rights, and traffic and road sense. When television was taking birth, radio happened to be a matured medium in India. Various entertainment programs were added in the curriculum of Indian Radio that included melodious songs and interview panels.

Brief Growth of AIR-The governmentowned network of Indian radio provides both national and local programs in Hindi, English, and sixteen regional languages.

Commercial Radio services in India started in 1967 by Vividh Bharati Service with its headquarters at Mumbai.

Vividh Bharati earned its revenues from extensive advertisements and had been broadcasting from thirty-one AM and FM stations during the mid-1990s.

In 1994 there had been almost 85 FM stations and seventy-three short wave stations that connected the entire country.

The broadcasting equipment used in India is mainly indigenous and reaches special audiences, such as farmers needing agro climatic, plant protection, and other agriculture-related information.

The number of radio receivers increased almost five times between 1970 and 1994. Initially it was around 14 million that rose to nearly 65 million. Most radios are also produced within India.

Service of ESD also improved in terms of no of programs and geographical areas

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1950s July 20, 1952 : First National Programme of Music broadcast from AIR. July 29, 1953 : National Programme of Talks (English) commenced from AIR. 1954 : First Radio Sangeet Sammelan held. August 15, 1956 : National Programme of Play commenced. October 3, 1957 : Vividh Bharati Services started. November 1, 1959 : First TV Station in Delhi started (at that time, it was part of AIR).

Growth of AIR Since 1950
1960s
November 1, 1967 : Commercial on Vividh Bharati started. July 21, 1969 : Yuv-Vani service started at Delhi. August 15, 1969 : 1000 KW Superpower Medium Wave Transmitter commissioned at Calcutta (Mogra).

1970s
January 8, 1971 : 1000 KW Superpower Medium Wave Transmitter commissioned at Rajkot.

1974 : Aakashvani Annual Awards instituted. April 1, 1976 : TV separated from AIR 1977 : Introduction of political party broadcasts. July 23, 1977 : First ever FM Service was inaugurated from Madras

1980s
October 30, 1984 : First Local Station at Nagarcoil started. January 26, 1985 : II phase of Commercial on Primary Channel introduced. August 15, 1985 : Introduction of hourly news bulletins. May 18, 1988 : Introduction of National Channel. April 8, 1989 : Commissioning of Integrated North East Service.

1990s
March 2, 1990 : The 100th Station of AIR commissioned at Warangal (A.P.). 1990 : AIR introduced Award for the best News Correspondent of the year. October 2, 1991 : Vividh Bharti Panaji became a CBS Channel. October 2, 1992 : Commissioning of FM Channel at Jalandhar. January 10, 1993 : Introduction of Phone-in-programme at AIR Delhi.

October 2, 1992 : Commissioning of FM Channel at Jalandhar. January 10, 1993 : Introduction of Phone-in-programme at AIR Delhi. January 28, 1993 : Commissioning of VB Channel at Varanasi. April 1, 1993 : The150th Station of AIR inauguraated at Berhampur (Orissa) August 15, 1993 : Introduction of Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Delhi - Mumbai.

September 1, 1993 : Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Chennai. July 25, 1994 : Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Kolkata. May 2, 1996 : Launching of AIR on-line Information Service on Internet. January 13, 1997 : Started Audio in real time on Internet Service. November 23, 1997 : Prasar Bharati Corporation came into existence and took control of AIR and Doordarshan.

August 15, 1999 : Second FM Channels commissioned at Delhi and Calcutta. November, 1999 : AIR launched a daily Malayalam Service for the Gulf Region

2000-2007 June, 2000 : Community Radio Stations commissioned at Nongstoin & WilliamNagar in (Meghalaya), Saiha (Mizoram), Tuensang and Mon in Nagaland. July 17, 2000 :Regional Staff Training Institute (Tech.) started functioning at Bhubaneshwar (Orissa)

February 27, 2002 : AIR launched its first ever digital satellite home service which catersto Indian sub-continent and South East Asia.The listener¶s have to use a special digital satellite receiver to receive the signal directly from the satellite. These receivers are available in the country and being manufactured by a number of reputed companies in India and abroad.

July, 2002 : Celebrated 75 years of Broadcasting .

December 16, 2004 : Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh inaugurated DTH Service of AIR & Doordarshan.

23rd Aug, 2005 :New Broadcasting House equipped with digital studio setup for News Service Division, External Service and Home Service was inaugurated by Hon¶ble Minister of I&B and Culture.

April 1, 1993 : The150th Station of AIR inaugurated at Berhampur (Orissa) August 15, 1993 : Introduction of Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Delhi - Mumbai. September 1, 1993 : Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Chennai. July 25, 1994 : Time Slots on FM Channel to private parties at Kolkata.

Present status Of AIR
‡ AIR today has a network of 232 broadcasting centres with 149 medium frequency(MW), 54 high frequency (SW) and 171 FM transmitters. ‡ The coverage is 91.79% of the area , serving 99.14% of the people in the largest democracy of the world. ‡ AIR covers 24 Languages and 146 dialects in home services. ‡ In Externel services, it covers 27 languages; 17 national and 10 foreign languages.