Portrait photography  

Portrait photography or portraiture is the capture by means of photography of the likeness of a person or a small group of people (a group portrait), in which the face and expression is predominant. The objective is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the subject. Like other types of portraiture, the focus of the photograph is the person's face, although the entire body and the background may be included. A portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the camera.

Portrait photography

Wildlife photography 

Wildlife photography is the act of taking photographs of wildlife. Wildlife photography is regarded as being one of the more challenging forms of photography. As well as needing sound technical skills, such as being able to expose correctly, wildlife photographers generally need good field craft skills. For example, some animals are difficult to approach and thus a knowledge of the animal`s behaviour is needed in order to be able to predict their actions. Photographing some species may require stalking skills or the use of a hide/blind for concealment. Whilst wildlife photographs can be taken using basic equipment, successful photography of some types of wildlife requires specialist equipment, such as macro lenses for insects, long focal length lenses for birds and underwater cameras for marine life. However, since the advent of digital cameras, greater adventure travel and automated cameras, a great wildlife photograph can also be the result of being in the right place at the right time.  

Wildlife photography 




Nature photography  

Nature photography refers to a wide range of photography taken outdoors and devoted to displaying natural elements such as landscapes , wildlife, plants, and close-ups of natural scenes and closetextures. Nature photography tends to put a stronger emphasis on the aesthetic value of the photo than other photography genres, such as photojournalism and documentary photography. Nature photographs are published in scientific, travel and cultural magazines such as National Geographic Magazine, National Wildlife Magazine, Magazine and Audubon Magazine or other more specific magazines such as Outdoor Photographer and Nature's Best Photography. Well Photography. known nature photographers include Frans Lanting, Galen Rowell, and Art Wolfe.

Ethics in photography 

A number of ethical concerns and debates surround the creation of nature photography. Common issues involve the potential of stress or harm to wildlife, the potential of photographers overrunning and destroying natural areas, the use of game farms, and veracity and manipulation in photography.

Advertisement photography 

Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team. in-

Night photography  

Night photography refers to photographs taken outdoors between dusk and dawn. Night photographers generally have a choice between using artificial light or using a long exposure, exposing the scene for seconds or even minutes, in order to give the film enough time to capture a usable image, and to compensate for reciprocity failure. With the progress of high-speed films, higher-sensitivity highhigherdigital image sensors, wide-aperture lenses, and the wideeverever-greater power of urban lights, night photography is increasingly possible using available light

Technique and equipment 


The following techniques and equipment are generally used in night photography. A tripod is usually necessary due to the long exposure times. Alternatively, the camera may be placed on a steady, flat object e.g. a table or chair, low wall, window sill, etc. A shutter release cable or self timer is almost always used to prevent camera shake when the shutter is released. Manual focus, since autofocus systems usually operate poorly in low light conditions. Newer digital cameras incorporate a Live View mode which often allows very accurate manual focusing. A stopwatch or remote timer, to time very long exposures where the camera's bulb setting is used.


The length of a night exposure causes the lights on moving cars to streak across the image

Camera accessories  

Tripod is a word generally used to refer to a three-legged object, generally one used as a threeplatform of some sort, and comes from the Greek tripous, meaning "three feet". A tripod tripous, provides stability along the side-to-side and upside-toupandand-down Coordinate axis of motion and provides a large amount of leverage. Tripods have the disadvantage of being heavy and bulky although they can be used with large equipment


On firearms, tripods are commonly used on machine guns to provide a forward rest and to reduce motion from recoil. Machine guns are capable of firing long continuous bursts of fire, but at the cost of increased recoil (which decreases accuracy), and increased weight (machine guns are heavier in order to absorb the stresses of prolonged fully-automatic fire). fullyThe tripod permits the operator to rest the weapon on the ground and thus the gun feels lighter to the shooter and accuracy is increased



Tripods are used for both motion and still photography to prevent camera movement and stability. They are necessary when slow-speed exposures sloware being made, or when telephoto lenses are used, as any camera movement while the shutter is open will produce a blurred image. In the same vein, they reduce camera shake, and thus are instrumental in achieving maximum sharpness. A tripod is also helpful in achieving precise framing of the image, or when more than one image is being made of the same scene, for example when bracketing the exposure. Use of a tripod may also allow for a more thoughtful approach to photography. For all of these reasons a tripod of some sort is often necessary for professional photography. In relation to Film/Video use of the Tripod offers stability within a shot as well as certain desired heights. The head of a Film Camera Tripod allows free flowing movement with which you can easily track a subject or pan left/right as well as tilt up and down. The use of a tripod within film/video is often a creative choice of the Director. 

Tripod showing head, pan movements

A camera mounted on a tripod. photography, In photography, a tripod is used to stabilize and elevate a camera, camera, or to support flashes or other photographic equipment.




In place of or to supplement a tripod, some photographers use a one-legged telescoping onestand called a monopod for convenience in setup and breakdown. A monopod requires the photographer to hold the camera in place, but because the photographer no longer has to support the full weight of the camera, it can provide some of the same stabilization advantages as a tripod.




In photography and videography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical path. The filter can be a square or oblong shape mounted in a holder accessory, or, more commonly, a glass or plastic disk with a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed in front of the lens or clipped onto the lens. Filters allow the photographer to have more control of the images being produced. Sometimes they are used to make only subtle changes to images; other times the image would simply not be possible without them. The negative aspects of using filters, though often negligible, include the possibility of loss of image definition if using dirty or scratched filters, and increased exposure required by the reduction in light transmitted. The former is best avoided by careful use and maintenance of filters, while the latter is a matter of technique; it usually will not be a problem if planned out properly, but in some situations filter use is impractical.  

Types of filters 

62 mm ultraviolet, polarizing, and fluorescent lens filters

Uses of filters  

Clear filters, also known as window glass filters or optical flats, filters, flats, are completely transparent, and (ideally) perform no filtering of incoming light at all. The only use of a clear filter is to protect the front of a lens. UV filters are used to reduce haziness created by ultraviolet light. A UV filter is mostly transparent to visible light, and can be left on the lens for nearly all shots. UV filters are often used for lens protection, much like clear filters. A strong UV filter, such as a HazeHaze2A or UV17, cuts off some visible light in the violet part of the spectrum, and so has a pale yellow color; these strong filters are more effective at cutting haze, and can reduce purple fringing in digital cameras. Strong UV filters are also sometimes used for warming color photos taken in shade with daylight-type film. daylight-

Color correction  


A major use is to compensate for the effects of lighting not balanced for the film stock's rated color temperature (usually 3200 K for professional and 5500 K for daylight): e.g., the 80A blue filter used with daylight film corrects the orange/reddish cast of household tungsten lighting, while the 85B used with tungsten film will correct the bluish cast of daylight. Color correction filters are identified by numbers which sometimes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The use of these filters has been greatly reduced by the widespread adoption of digital photography, since color balance problems are now often addressed with software after the image is captured, or with camera settings as the image is captured.

Color subtraction Color subtraction filters work by absorbing certain colors of light, letting the remaining colors through. They can be used to demonstrate the primary colors that make up an image. They are perhaps most frequently used in the printing industry for color separations, and again, use has diminished as digital solutions have become more advanced and abundant.


A polarizing filter, used both in color filter, and black and white photography, filters out light polarized perpendicularly to the axis of the filter. This has two applications in photography: it reduces reflections from some surfaces, and it can darken the sky


Natural light Sunlight Meteor Stars Lighting

Artificial light candles Torches Fire Electric lamp

Physical properties of light 

Whether its source is the Sun, a flashlight, or a fluorescent bulb overhead, light is a form of energy that is common in our everyday lives. One of light's characteristic properties is that, in a transparent medium like air, glass, or still water, it travels in a straight line.

Light travels in a straight line  

As small sources of light casts a sharp shadow of an opaque object When light waves, which travel in straight lines, encounter any substance, they are either reflected, absorbed, transmitted, or refracted. Those substances that transmit almost all the light waves falling upon them are said to be transparent. transparent. A transparent substance is one through which you can see clearly

Light may be bent or refracted  

Refraction is the bending of light as it passes from one medium to anothe Speed of light in air 3 × 10 (8) m/s Speed of light in glass 2 x 1o(8) m/s


The fact that refractive indices differ for each wavelength of light produces an effect called dispersion. This can be seen by shining dispersion. a beam of white light into a triangular prism made of glass. White light entering such a prism will be refracted in the prism by different angles depending on the wavelength of the light. The refractive index for longer wavelengths (red) are lower than those for shorter wavelengths (violet). This results in the a greater angle of refraction for the longer wavelengths than for the shorter wavelengths. (Shown here are the paths taken for a wavelength of 800 nm, angle r800 and for a wavelength of 300 nm, angle r300 ). When the light exits from the other side of the prism, we see the different wavelengths dispersed to show the different colors of the spectrum.


The first property of light we consider is reflection from a surface, such as that of a mirror. When light is reflected off any surface, the angle of incidence ( qI ) is always equal to the angle of reflection ( qR ). Note: