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Air and Noise Pollution

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Chapte r
Air and Noise Pollution

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Air and Noise Pollution

Introduction
According to Environment Protection Act (1986), Environment includes water, air, land and their inter relationship with human beings, other living creatures, plants and micro-organisms. Pollution refers to the presence of substances in air, water and land, whether they result from human activity or occur naturally which have adverse effects on human and on environment. Air pollution is thus the state of environment in which the outer atmosphere gets contaminated with gases and other materials in concentration which are harmful to man and environment. The contamination of air occurs because the contaminants cannot be absorbed by natural environmental cycles.

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Air and Noise Pollution

International Efforts in Controlling Air Pollution
Air pollution is a problem at local or national level but sometime it may emanate in one country and may engulf the neighbouring countries. It seems that earliest effort at air pollution control was made by the 1957-58 WHO Conference. It is known as “Clean Air Conference”. Later a symposium was held on Epidemiology of Air Pollution at the regional office of WHO for Europe in 1966. The 1972 Stockholm Conference was the first major effort to discuss control of pollution including air pollution. In 1974 some of the major industrial countries of the world (19 European countries, Australia, Canada and Japan) convened a meeting for the control of air pollution. In this meeting two basic principles were evolved: i. ii.
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Polluter must pay for pollution, and Transfrontier air pollution be controlled.
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Air and Noise Pollution

India’s Efforts in Controlling Air Pollution
The Root Cause in India* Air pollution has been caused by developments that typically occur as countries become industrialised: growing cities, increasing traffic, rapid economic development and industrialisation, and higher levels of energy consumption. The migration of population to urban areas, increase in consumption patterns and unplanned urban and industrial development have led to the problem of air pollution. Between 1951 and 1991, the urban population has tripled, from 62.4 million to 217.6 million, and its proportion has increased from 17.3% to 25.7% 1. Increase in Number of Vehicles 2. Increase in Industrial Activity 3. Increase in Power Generation 4. Domestic Pollution 5. Other Sources 6. Air Pollutant Emission Load 7. Vehicular Emissions Copyright © 2003, 1999, N K Uberoi 8. Ambient Air Quality
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Air and Noise Pollution

Range and mean of annual averages (1990-98) of SPM in various cities
Maximum Minimum Average

Range and Mean of Annual Average of SPM (mg/m3)

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Che Ban Hyd Pondi Nag Pune Mum Cha Ahm Bho Jai How Pat Del NAAQS industrial area

NAAQS residential area

Cal Kan
Cont….

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Air and Noise Pollution

Range and mean of annual average of Sulphur dioxide (mg/m3)

120 100 80 60 NAAQS industrial area NAAQS residential area

Maximum Minimum Average

40 20 0

Nag

Cha

Jai

Bho Kan

Hyd

Che

Pat

Del Ahm

Ban

Mum Pune Pondi Cal How

Range and mean of annual averages (1990-98) of SO2 in Various Cities

Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution

Range and mean of annual average of Nitrogen dioxide (mg/m3)

250 200 150

Maximum Minimum Average

100

NAAQS industrial area NAAQS residential area

50

0 Nag Che Kan Cha Bho Ban Pat Jai Ahm Hyd Del Mum Cal Pondi Pune How

Range and mean of annual averages (1990-98) of NO2 in various cities

Cont….

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Air and Noise Pollution Our Industry
Despite these Acts, the problem of air pollution in India (Urban and Industrial continues serious. to Estates) remain is Industry Air Polluting Industrial Sectors in India
High Potential Aluminum smelter Asbestos Battery manufacturing Cement plants Copper smelters Carbon Black Calcium Carbide Coke Oven units Fertiliser industries Integrated Iron & Steel plants Mining Oil refineries Petrochemicals Pulp and Paper Refractories Sulphuric Acid plants Thermal Power plants Zinc smelters Foundries Ferro Alloys Low Potential Pesticides Pharmaceuticals Glass manufacturing Boilers for steam generation Sugar Fermentation industries Dyes and Dye Intermediates Tanneries Small Furnaces in recycling Rubber reclamation Lead, Chromium Nickel recycling Plastic recycling Secondary metallurgical, recycling units Stone Crushing units Textile processing

second largest source of air pollution after the transport sector. The Industries categorised Table below. which as are Air

Polluting are listed in

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Air and Noise Pollution

Factories Act, 1948
Industries are the main cause for causing pollution. The Factories Act, 1948, as amended by the Act of 1987, contains provisions for preventing pollution. Section 48 of the Act runs: In every factory in which, by reasons of the manufacturing process, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a nature and to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive for the workers employed therein, or any dust in substantial quantities, effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any work-room. In any factory no stationary internal combustion engine shall be operated unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air, and no other internal combustion engine shall be operated in any room unless effective measures have been taken to prevent such accumulation of fumes therefrom as are likely to be injurious to workers employed in the room.
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Industrial (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951
The Industrial (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 makes provisions for the development and regulation of certain industries through licensing. Although we are now closing the era of industrial licensing, we are yet retaining the power to permit opening up some industries, particularly, hazardous and polluting industries, only by a licence. The most important provision is the one which places burden of proof on the person who violates the conditions of the licence. Section 28 lays down: “Where any person prosecuted for contravening any order made under Section 18 G which prohibits him from doing an act without a permit ….. the burden of proving that he has such authority, permit ….. shall be on him”.
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Air and Noise Pollution

Mines and Mineral (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957
The Mines and Mineral (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957 of the natural resources of the earth which, among other things, includes the preservation of the quality of air and control of air pollution.

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Air and Noise Pollution

Water and Air Pollution Boards
With a view to preventing and controlling air pollution, the Air Act (1981) contemplates for the establishment of Central and State Water Pollution Boards. Since the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1974), a statute passed earlier, stipulated to establish similar Boards, now these Boards have been amalgamated and are called Water and Air Pollution Boards. The Water and Air Pollution Boards are given the status of body corporate having perpetual success on and a common seal with power to acquire and dispose of property, to enter into contracts in its name, and to sue and be sued in the court of law in its name.

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Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
To counter the problems associated with air pollution, ambient air quality standards were established, under the Air Act (1981). The Act provides means for the control and abatement of air pollution. The Act seeks to combat air pollution by prohibiting the use of polluting fuels and substances, as well as by regulating appliances that give rise to air pollution. Under the Act establishing or operating of any industrial plant in the pollution control area requires consent from state boards. The boards are also expected to test the air in air pollution control areas, inspect pollution control equipment, and manufacturing processes. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for major pollutants were notified by the CPCB in April 1994. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Rules formulated in 1982, defined the procedures for conducting meetings of the Pollution Control Boards, the powers of the presiding officers, decision-making, the quorum, manner in which the records of the meeting were to be set, etc. Copyright © 2003, 1999, N K Uberoi
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Air and Noise Pollution

Management of Air Pollution
The poor air quality specially of urban India shows a dismal picture. Legislation to deal with the problem came only as reactions to serious episodes of accidental industrial gas leaks like the Bhopal disaster. Whatever little legal development took place up to the 1990s, it was focussed on stationary sources of pollution like industries and thermal power plants – and remained almost blind to air pollution crisis from mobile sources like vehicles. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act came into being in 1981. The Act provided for prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. In areas notified under this act, no industrial pollution causing activity could come up without the permission of the concerned state pollution Control Board. EPA (1986) is an umbrella legislation designed to provide a framework for the Central Government to coordinate activities of various central and state authorities established under previous laws such as the Water Act and Air Act.
Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution Regulation of Vehicular pollution
Progressive Revision of Emission Standards for Indian Vehicles (1991-2000)
Types of vehicles and pollutants Petrol vehicles: 2-wheelers CO (gm/km) HC (gm/km) HC+NOx (gm/km) Petrol vehicles: 3-wheelers CO (gm/km) HC (gm/km) HC+NOx (gm/km) Petrol vehicles: cars CO (gm/km) HC (gm/km) HC+NOx (gm/km) April 1991 standard 15-35 10-12 – 40 15 – 14.3-27.1 2.0-2.9 – April 1996 standard 4.5 – 3.6 6.8 – 5.40 8.68-12.40 – 3.00-4.36 April 2000 standard 2.4 – 2.4 4.8 – 2.4 3.16 – 1.13 Limits for type approval
Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution
Diesel vehicles* CO (gm/kwh) HC (gm/kwh) NOx (gm/kwh) PM (gm/kwh)*** PM (gm/kwh)**** Diesel vehicles** CO (gm/kwh) HC (gm/kwh) NOx PM (gm/kwh)*** PM (gm/kwh)****
Note:

14.0 3.5 18.0 – – 14.0 3.5 18.0 – –

11.2 2.4 14.4 – – 11.2 2.4 14.4 – –

4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 0.61 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36 0.61

*: grass vehicle weight>3.5 tonnes ***: engines with power exceeding 85kw kwh: kilowatthour PM: particulate matter NO: Nitrous Oxide

**: grass vehicle weight <3.5 tonnes ****: engines with power equal to or less than 85kw gm/km: gramme per kilometre CO: Carbon Monoxide HC: Hydro Carbon
Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution
Comparison of Notified 2000 AD Emission Norms for Diesel Cars in India with the Euro Norms
Country Europe Type diesel cars For passenger cars up to 6 seats All except direct injection diesel engines Direct injection diesel engines Europe Indirect injection system Direct injection Direct injection diesel engines Europe Proposed EU Proposal A Proposal B Effective from (date) 1.7.92 (new models) 31.12.92 (all models) Until 30.6.94 1.1.97 1.1.97 1.10.99 2000 2005 CO gm/km 3.16 __ 3.16 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.64 0.50 0.5 HC+NOx g/km 1.13 __ 1.13 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.56 0.30 0.1 PM g/km 0.18 __ 0.18 .08 0.1 0.08 0.05 0.025 0.04

Emission limits Proposal EU Parliament for passenger cars for 2000/2005 India Diesel vehicles with reference mass equal to or less than 1,250 kg* (limits for conformity of production) 2000

3.16

1.13

0.18

Note: *

In Europe this category of weight is classified as light commercial vehicles. Passenger cars are listed separately. In Europe, after 1994, norms for type approval and conformity of production (COP) are the Cont…. same. Figures prior to 1994 are COP figures.
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Air and Noise Pollution Measurement of Emission for vehicles and market While at one level, emissions standards are weak, at another level, technical parameters for measuring mass emissions, which have a significant bearing on actual emission levels, are played around with to make them even weaker. Since 1991, parameters such as cold and warm start emissions and urban driving cycle for laboratory testing of vehicular emission, have been modified to reduce the severity of emission standards. Emission norms – 2000 and 2005 The most serious criticism of the Indian mass emission regulations is that even in the year 2000 India enforced outdated European emission regulations. India in 2000 enforced the Euro I standards which Europe had enforced way back in 1992-93 and Euro II standards in 2001. According to official sources in CPCB, EURO III is being considered as one of Cont…. the possible options for enforcement in 2005.
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Air and Noise Pollution Distorted prices of fuels and automobile industry Cheap diesel prices and extremely lax emission standards for diesel cars make diesel models very attractive. TELCO, which has ventured into the car market for the first time, has introduced the 1,400 cc diesel Indica Mint. Threatened by the TELCO’s entry, Maruti has already introduced the diesel Zen. Premier Automobiles Ltd. has launched 1,700 cc diesel Fiat Uno, Mercedes Benz, India Ltd. has added a diesel variant, E250, to its E class series. Mahindra Ford has flagged off diesel Escort. General Motors India has launched Astra diesel. Hindustan Motors and Mistubishi have jointly introduced the diesel Lancer. Crompton and Greaves brought out their diesel three-wheeler — Garuda — in 1996. Afraid of losing its market share, Bajaj, too, has developed a diesel threewheeler. Quality of Petrol – LEAD VS BENZENE Fuel policies are being implemented without considering the full pollution implication. The most glaring example is that of changing the fuel composition to tackle the threat posed by high level of airborne lead. Indian fuel standards mandate benzene level in unleaded petrol at 5 per cent, Copyright © 2003, 1999, N K Uberoi whereas the world standard is 1 per cent. Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution State Level Planning Though urban air pollution has emerged as a serious problem in the last decade, the government’s efforts to deal with the problem are very localised. Some state governments, particularly in severely polluted cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta, have begun looking into this critical issue. Due to increased public awareness and judicial intervention in response to public interest litigation, state governments have become a little more active only in the last two to three years to frame action plans. Industrial pollution The government has approached the problem of industrial pollution at two levels — by setting emission standards for industries and through land-use plans to segregate industries from residential areas. But enforcement has encountered serious problems. The effort of government agencies, prompted in most cases by legal action, has been to order the closure of polluting companies. But, after many such orders, the effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be assessed. Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution Thermal power plants Thermal power plants have emerged as one of the major polluters in urban India. Reportedly, more than 40 of the approximately 70 plants in the country have not been complying with the standards and are spewing out as much as 40 million tonnes of fly ash every year. An Innovative Management An appropriate approach for management of air pollution would be to tackle the individual pollutant in a way that is practical and sustainable. Let us take the case of controlling carbon emission by studying carbon cycle. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is the outcome of a natural cycle, the carbon cycle. Carbon is continuously released into the atmosphere and is continuously reabsorbed. Prior to industrialisation rates of release and absorption were approximately in balance but now human intervention has changed this balance towards net release. Finally, substitution of conventional energy sources (fossil fuels) by nonconventional sources (solar, wind, hydro, biomass) would be the answer for Copyright © 2003, 1999, N K Uberoi managing air pollution.
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Air and Noise Pollution

Noise Pollution
Noise pollution affects the health physiologically, psychologically and in behaviour sense; with excessive noise, human beings become more irritable. It is estimated that noisy conditions result in lower efficiency and increased errors by the workers. Sources of Noise i. Industry; ii. Road traffic; iii. Trains; iv. Aircraft; v. Construction work; vi. Loud speakers. Control of Noise Pollution i. Devising noise control devices; ii. Creating noise free zones; iii. Legal means. Copyright © 2003, 1999, N K Uberoi
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Air and Noise Pollution

Legal Means
Under Indian legal system, unlike many countries of world, there exists no law that deals exclusively with noise control. However, there are provisions for noise control in various other Acts:        Police Act of 1861 Railway Act of 1890 Aircraft Act of 1934 Motor Vehicle Act of 1939 Factory Act of 1948 Air Act of 1981 EPA of 1986
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Air and Noise Pollution

The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000
Whereas the increasing ambient noise levels in public places from various sources, inter alia, industrial activity, construction activity, generator sets, loudspeakers, public address system, music systems, vehicular horns and other mechanical devices have deleterious effect on human health and the psychological well-being of the people; it is considered necessary to regulate and control noise producing and generating sources with the objective of maintaining the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise.

Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by Cl. (ii) of sub-section (2) of Sec. 3, sub-section (1) and Cl. (b) of subsection (2) of Sec. 6 and Sec. 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) read with rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986, the Central Government hereby makes the following rules for the regulation and control of noise producing and generating sources, namely: 1. 2. Short title and commencement Definitions

3. Ambient air quality standards in respect of noise for different areas/zones 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
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Responsibility as to enforcement of noise pollution control measures Restrictions on the use of loudspeakers/public address system Consequences of any violation in silence zone/area Complaints to be made to the authority Power to prohibit continuance of music sound or noise
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Cont….
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Air and Noise Pollution
Schedule (See rule 3(1) and 4(1)) Ambient Air Quality Standards in respect of Noise Area Code Category of Area/Zone Limits in dB(A) Leq* Day Time Night Time A. Industrial area 75 70 B. Commercial area 65 55 C. Residential area 55 45 D. Silence zone 50 40 Note: 1. Day time shall mean from 6.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. 2. Night time shall mean from 10.00 p.m. to 6.00 a.m. 3. Silence zone is defined as an area comprising not less than 100 metres around hospitals, educational institutions and courts. The silence zones are zones which are declared as such by the competent authority. 4. Mixed categories of areas may be declared as one of the four above mentioned categories by the competent authority. *dB (A) Leq denotes the time weighted average of the level of sound in decibels on scale A which is relatable to human hearing. A “decibel” is a unit in which noise is measured. “A” in dB (A) Leq, denotes the frequency weighting in the measurement of noise and corresponds of frequency response characteristics of the human ear. Leq. It is an energy mean of the noise level over a specified period.
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Noise Pollution

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