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H U M AN

IT IS POSSIBLE TO MAKE ERRORS

DURING CALCULATIONS ETC .


TO AVOID THIS , DATA MUST BE
CHECKED THOROUGHLY BY AN
EXPERT .
ALSO , FOR ECONOMICAL
PURPOSES , AN ENGINEER
INTENTIONALLY CAN MAKE MISTAKES
.
EXAMPLE : REDUCTION OF STEEL

ATM O SPH ERIC


Atmospheric pollution usually refers to the element of the

atmosphere which has been altered by human activities.


Changes in natural and polluted atmospheres can be highly
variable both across space and through time
. In coastal environments, for example, there is naturally more
salt in the atmosphere than in inland environments. Salting
activities in cold spells, however, create artificially elevated
levels of salt in inland locations.
Some of the major pollutants that effect stonework are carbon
dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates such
as smoke. Carbon dioxide is probably most familiar as a
greenhouse gas, contributing to global warming, but it also
combines with water in the atmosphere to produce carbonic
acid. This means that natural rainfall is a weak solution of
carbonic acid with a pH of about 5.6 (pH 7 being neutral .

CH EM ICAL
SULPHATES : SULPHATES CAN BE

INTRODUCED INTO BUILDING


MATERIALS THROUGH WATER ETC .
THEY CORRODE STEEL AND CAUSE
BRITTLENESS IN CEMENT THAT
LEADS TO LOOSENING OF THE
PRODUCT .

STRU CTU RAL


THIS IS A VERY IMPORTANT FACTOR .
ALL THE ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING

NEED TO WORK EFFICIENTLY .


FAILURE OF ANY ELEMENT WILL LEAD
TO DAMAGE .
EXAMPLE : BEAMS , COLUMNS ,
FOUNDATION ETC .

VAN D ALISM
IT IS THE PROCESS WHERE A

BUILDING IS DAMAGED
DELIBERATELY DURING WARS AND
PROTESTS .
IT HAS DESTROYED MANY
MONUMENTS DURING WORLD WAR 2
.

SO IL
SOIL IS A MAIN ASPECT .
BEFORE CONSTRUCTION , A

DETAILED STUDY OF THE SOIL TYPE


SHOULD BE DONE .
AND THE BEST SUITED FOUNDATION
MUST BE LAID .

FAU LTY D ESIG N


AN ARCHITECT NEEDS TO DESIGN A

BUILDING WITH A PRACTICAL


APPROACH .
A FAULTY DESIGN WILL LEAD TO
DAMAGE IRRESPECTIVE OF THE
STRUCTURAL QUALITY .
THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS NEED
TO SUPPORT THE DESIGN .

FAU LTY M ATERIALS


CLIMATE PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN

SELECTION OF MATERIALS .
A DETAILED STUDY NEEDS TO BE
MADE AND THE MATERIALS SHOULD
BE SUITABLE FOR THAT PARTICULAR
CLIMATE
OR IT WILL RESULT IN DECAY AND
DAMAGE .

FIRE
Building fires, which normally reach temperatures of about

1000 C, can affect the loadbearing capacity of structural


bearing elements in a number of ways.
Apart from such obvious effects as charring and spalling,
there can be a permanent loss of strength in the remaining
material and thermal expansion may cause damage in parts
of the building not directly affected by the fire.
In assessing fires effects, the main emphasis should be
placed on estimating the residual load-carrying capacity of
the structure and then determining the remedial measures, if
any, needed to restore the building to its original design for
fire resistance and other requirements. Obviously, if
weaknesses in the original design are exposed, these should
be corrected.

FAU LTY CO N STRU CTIO N


IT INCLUDES :
1) Inaccurate measurement
2) Movement or changes in the

position of formwork.
3) The use of damaged formwork.
4) Painting on unsuitable surface.
5) Insufficient reinforcement bars
concrete cover.
6) Improper construction of joints.

IM PRO PER RESTO RATIO N S


WHILE MAKING CHANGES AND

RENOVATIONS , AN ENGINEER
SHOULD MAKE SURE THAT THE
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ARE NOT
DISTURBED .
EXAMPLE : IN A CAR SHOWROOM ALL
THE PILLARS OF A GROUNG FLOOR
WERE REMOVED FOR A WIDER
SPACE WHICH RESULTED IN
COLLAPSE .

FAU LTY SYSTEM


CONSTRUCTION IS A VERY LARGE
PROCESS.
FROM A LABORER TO AN ARCHITECT
EVERY MEMBER IS EQUALLY
RESPONSIBLE .

M O ISTU RE
WATER CAN ENTER INTO THE WALLS

THROUGH RAINS OR BAD


DRAINAGE .
MOISTURE CONTENT RESULTS IN
LOOSENING OF THE PARTICLES ,
RESULTING IN DAMAGE .
IMPROPER CURING IS ALSO ONE OF
THE FACTORS