Microprocessors

Chapter 1

An Introduction To Microprocessor And Computer
prepared by Dr. Mohamed A. Shohla

Chapter Overview
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A Historical Background The Microprocessor Age Pentium Evolution The Microprocessor-Based Personal computer System The Microprocessor

Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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The Microprocessor Age-1 Age(a) 1970s Processors
4004 Introduced Clock speeds Bus width No. of transistors Addressable memory Virtual memory 71 108 KHz 4 bits 2300 640 bytes ² 8008 72 108 KHz 8 bits 3500 16 KB ² 8080 74 2 MHz 8 bits 6000 64 KB ² 8086 78 5±10 MHz 16 bits 29000 1 MB ² 8088 79 5±8 MHz 8 bits 29000 1 MB ²

Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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The Microprocessor Age-2 Age(b) 1980s Processors
80286 Introduced Clock speeds Bus width No. of transistors Addressable memory Virtual memory 82 6-12MHz 16 bits 134000 16 megabytes 1 gigabyte 386TMDX 85 16-33MHz 32 bits 275000 4 gigabytes 64 terabytes 386TMSX 88 16-33 MHz 16 bits 275000 4 gigabytes 64 terabytes 486TM DX 89 25-50 MHz 32 bits 1.2 million 4 gigabytes 64 terabytes

Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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The Microprocessor Age-3 Age(c) 1990s Processors
486TMSX Introduced Clock speeds Bus width No. of transistors Addressable memory Virtual memory 91 16-133 MHz 32 bits 1.2 million 4 gigabytes 64 terabyte Pentium 93 60-166MHz 32 bits 3.1 million 4 gigabytes 64 terabytes Pentium 95 150-200 MHz 64 bits 5.5 million 64 gigabytes 64 terabytes Pentium II 97 200-300 MHz 64 bits 7.5 million 64 gigabytes 64terabytes

Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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The Microprocessor Age-4 Age(d) Recent Processors
Pentium III Introduced Clock speeds Bus width No. of transistors Addressable memory Virtual memory 99 450-660 MHz 64 bits 95 million 64 gigabytes 64 terabytes Pentium 4 11/2000 1.3-1.8 GHz 64 bits 42 million 64 gigabytes 64 terabytes

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The Pentium Evaluation
- 4004 (1971) - 8008 (1973) - 8080 (1975) First 4-bit, 4k x 4 Memory, 45 Inst., 50 KIPS 8-bit, 16 KB Memory, 48 Inst. First 8-bit general purpose processor, 64 KB Memory, TTL , 500 KIPS Last 8-bit general purpose processor, Internal clock First 16-bit processor, 1 MB Memory, 2.5 MIPS, 4-6 Byte fetch queue Last 16-bit processor, 16 MB Memory, 4 MIPS

- 8085 (1977) - 8088 / 8086 (1978) - 80286 (1983)

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The Pentium Evaluation
- 80386 (1986) First 32-bit microprocessor, 32-bit address and data bus, 4GB Memory, Multitask Package (proc. + coproc + 8KB cache), pipelining 16 KB cache (8 KB Inst. cache + 8 KB Data cache), 64-bit data bus, 2 Execution Unit, Superscalar

- 80486 (1989)

- Pentium (1993)

- Pentium Pro (95) 16 KB L1 cache, 256 KB L2 cache, 3 Execution Unit, More Superscalar - Pentium II (1997) On-board 32 KB L1 cache, 512 KB L2 cache, MMX technology
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The Pentium Evaluation
- Pentium III (99) Additional FP instructions to support 3D graphics. Additional FP and other enhancements for multimedia. This new generation of Intel processor makes use of a 64-bit organization with the IA-64 architecture.

- Pentium IV (2001) - Itanium

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Compare between the 80486 through Pentium 4 microprocessor.
CPU C o p ro c e s s o r C P U1 CPU C o p ro

8K L1 C a c h e

16 K L1 C a c h e

P e n tiu m 8 0 4 8 6 DX
C P U1 C P U1 C P U2 CPU C o p ro 2K L1 C a c h e 16 K L1 C a c h e 6 K L2 C a c h e 12K L2 C a c h e or 256 K L2 C a c h e C P U2 CPU C o p ro

P e n tiu m P r o

P e n tiu m , P e n tiu m , o u e o r P e n tiu m 4

Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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The block diagram of a computer system.
Memory System Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Static RAM (SRAM) Cache Read only (ROM) Flash memory EEPROM Buses Microprocessor 8086 8088 80186 80286 80386 80486 Pentium Pro Pentium II Pentium III Pentium IV Buses I/O System

Printer Serial Communications Floppy disk drive Hard disk drive Mouse CD-ROM drive Plotter Keyboard Monitor Scanner DVD

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The purpose of the microprocessor in a microprocessormicroprocessor-based computer system
‡ At the heart of the microprocessor-based computer system is the microprocessor integrated cir-cuit. The microprocessor, sometimes referred to as the CPU (central processing unit), is the con-trolling element in a computer system. The microprocessor controls memory and I/O through a series of connections called buses. The microprocessor performs three main tasks for the computer system: 1. data transfer between itself and the memory or I/O systems. 2. simple arithmetic and logic operations. 3. program flow via simple decisions. Albeit these are simple tasks, but through them, the microprocessor performs virtually any series of operations or tasks.
Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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The three buses found in all computer systems.
A bus is a common group of wires that interconnect components in a computer system. The buses that interconnect the sections of a computer system transfer address, data, and control information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O systems. ‡ The address bus requests a memory location from the memory or an I/O location from the I/O devices. If I/O is addressed, the address bus contains a 16-bit I/O address from 0000H through FFFFH. ‡ The data bus transfers information between the microprocessor and its memory and I/O address space. Data transfers vary in size, from 8 bits wide to 64 bits wide in various members of the Intel microprocessor family. ‡ The control bus contains lines that select the memory or I/O and cause them to perform a read or write operation.
Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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Block diagram of a computer system showing address data and control bus.

Faculty of Electronic Engineering ± Dept. of Computer Science & Eng. Microprocessors Course

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The microprocessor bus and memory sizes
Microprocessor 8086 8088 80186 80188 80286 80386 80486 Pentium Pro Pentium II Pentium II, III, 4 Data Bus 16 8 16 8 16 32 32 64 64 64 Address Bus 20 20 20 20 24 32 32 36 32 36 Memory Size 1M 1M 1M 1M 16M 4G 4G 64G 4G 64G

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The physical memory systems of the 8086 through 80486

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The physical memory systems of the Pentium II through Pentium IV

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