Guide to Formatting

Papers for this course in APA style
Gordon Whitehead

General Instructions for Your Paper
All written assignments must follow the APA format. The following guidelines are clarifications and specifics I want included for all assignments in this class. Papers not formatted in this way are rejected.
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cover page required No abstract required Headings need to be used throughout the paper Introduction should include a clear thesis statement The first line of new paragraphs are indented References are reverse indented. Page break before references so they are on a separate page. Double space all writing Page numbers formatted in the automatic header within word (should be in the upper right corner) Use 12-point Times New Roman font. All margins are 1 inch.

The purpose of this presentation is to help make sure you submit your papers in the proper format. This is very important. Any paper not submitted in this format will be rejected. y I use this format because it helps students organize their thoughts and material and it helps readers understand how to find information in the paper. A single standard is important ± and for this course I have chosen APA, which is the college¶s standard also. y The best source for answering specific questions about APA is:

Why this presentation?


y y y y y y

Centered vertically and horizontally Include a title Your name as the author The name of the school The name of the class My name as the professor The date

Use Professor G. Whitehead here

The cover page


Page number (preferably the page number has a brief running head to it) Title heading First level heading Proper citation

y y y y

A better page number example y Example of secondary heading

The Body



A table is labeled at the top and the title is in italics. When you use a table you need to discuss it in the text ± don¶t let it stand all by itself without explanation.

Labeling Tables


A figure is labeled at the bottom. The words: Figure 3 is in italics«the title of the figure is in normal case. When you use a figure you need to discuss it in the text ± don¶t let it stand all by itself without explanation.


Labeling figures


References heading (not Works cited, Bibliography«but ³References´ Reverse indent See this web site if you have questions on how to format a particular reference: http://www.apastyl dex.aspx

y y

Here¶s a great website if you have questions about how to format a particular reference type:



Many students like to quote someone directly. Please use no more than one direct quote per paper. Make sure you explain it and that it is relevant to the topic and that it comes from a good source. is not a good source ± only quote an expert out of a solid journal article, text, or book, or reputable magazine such as Fortune, The Economist, etc. How to cite a direct quote: ³Text here you are quoting´ (Author lastname, date of publication, page number).

Example 1: ³Students who self-declared as leaders scored higher in authenticity composites´ (Whitehead, 2009, p. 28). Example 2: According to Whitehead (2009) ³Students who self-declared as leaders scored higher in authenticity composites´ (p. 28).


Rather than quoting directly, paraphrase and put into your own words what the author is saying and then discuss why it pertains. You still reference a paraphrased idea but no page # is needed.

Example 1: Leaders who self-declare as such tend to score higher in self-directed tests of authenticity (Whitehead, 2009). Example 2: According to Whitehead (2009) Leaders who self-declare as such in psychological instruments tend to also score higher in areas of authenticity.

Notice the quotation marks, then the citation, then the period.

Direct Quoting vs. Paraphrasing

Citations and References
‡ Do not cite something in your references section UNLESS they are cited in the text of your paper. Just because you read an article does not mean that it belongs in your reference section. Every study cited in the text of your paper MUST be referenced on your reference page. ALWAYS provide a citation for anyone else¶s work you use in paraphrased or quoted form to write your paper. Only use one direct quote per paper. Paraphrase instead of quoting.

‡ ‡

‡ Your citations should come from multiple sources. The text book is not considered research ± I require you to dive into the library for additional research. ‡ Citations in the text of your paper will always contain the author and date of publication. ‡ When there is more than one author cite all authors the first time you reference their material. Any other citations in your paper can be written with the first author¶s last name followed by et al. Example:
Brown, Robinson, and Rock (1996) found «(Use as the first citation in the text.) Brown et al. (1996) found« (Use as the citation for subsequent citations in the paper.)

Reference Examples
‡Book with 2 authors:

(for more details see: )

Hack, W.G. & Bowin, R.B. (1996). Human resource management: An experimental approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
(note that the first line of the reference is on the margin, all other lines are set in 5 spaces tab on your keyboard).

‡Journal article with 2 authors: Anderson, K.M. & Durant, D. (1997). Classified staff developers unite! Journal of Staff Development, 18(1), 18-21.
(Italicize the name of the journal and volume number. NOT (1).

‡ Web Page Citation: Author, I. (date of publication). Title of article. Name of Periodical, volume number (if provided). Retrieved date in normal order from full Web address or the library database used. Example: Brown, D. (2005). Get in position to bring accountants to account. Personnel Today, p17, 1-3p, 1c. Retrieved April 1, 2005, from EBSCOhost database. [Journal article from database]
Note: You do not put the enormous web site that appears at the top of the article that is retrieved through EBSCO or any other database that is used to retrieve journal articles.

‡A titanic struggle between supply & demand (2005, April 4). The Economist. Retrieved April 4, 2005, from The only web address that you cite is one that the reader can go directly to and find the EXACT item that you are referencing. Journal articles found on databases are cited by what database you used. This lets the reader know that they must access the database first before they can type in the article title and find the article.

Citing Data Files Used in Your Paper
‡ Data files that are accessed through the Internet or other sources must be listed on the reference page. Example: National Health Interview Survey ± Current health topics: 1991- Longitudinal study of aging (Version 4) [Data file]. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005) National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, 2003 [Data file]. Available from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web site You will notice that I used the word ³available´ which indicates to the reader that the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material, rather than the data itself.

General Rules for References
y y y y y

All references are double spaced. The first line is on the margin. The second and subsequent lines are set in 5 spaces (tab). Double space all lines in the references. Make sure to have a reference heading of ³References³ not ³Bibliography´ or ³Citations´ or ³Works Cited.´