Project Scheduling and Tracking

Basic problem -- Software is almost always late. Unrealistic deadlines Changing requirements Miscommunication among staff Risks not considered at beginning of project Technical difficulties that could not be foreseen in advance Human difficulties that could not be foreseen in advance Failure by management to recognize and correct the problem An ³honest´ underestimate of effort required ³Reviewed into failure´
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Project Scheduling and Tracking
An approach to unrealistic deadlines -- project redefinition Perform detailed estimate based on previous projects Use incremental process to deliver critical functionality on time Meet with customer (which may be upper management) Offer incremental development strategy as an alternative

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Basic Principles
Compartmentalization Identify task interdependencies Allocate time for each task Develop feasible schedule Define responsibilities. Each task should have a single person responsible. Each person should know their responsibilities. Define outcomes Define milestones

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# of People vs. Effort
Adding people to a project increases communication requirements Recall the software equation -- E=[LOC * B0.333/P]3 * (1/t4), where E = effort in person months t = project duration in months B = ³special skills factor´ For KLOC (5, 15) use 0.16, for KLOC > 70, use B = 0.39 P = ³productivity parameter´ Decreasing the time to complete the project requires more people, but look at the exponential nature of the relationship! Effort distribution -- often as little as 10% goes into coding.
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Defining the Task Set
Recall the general categories of tasks (from Ch. 2) Customer communication Planning Risk analysis Engineering and design Construction and release Customer evaluation Need to refine the task definitions in each of these categories No set rules for doing so Different projects can require different degrees of rigor
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Broad Categories of Projects & Degrees of Rigor
Types of projects Concept development New application development projects Application enhancement projects Application maintenance projects Reengineering projects There can be a progression through these kinds of projects These can be approached with different levels of rigor: casual Structured Strict Quick Reaction
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Degrees of Rigor
Adaptation criteria -- rate 1 to 5 Size of the project Number of potential users Mission criticality Application longevity Stability of requirements Ease of customer/developer communications Maturity of applicable technology Performance constraints Embedded/nonembedded characteristics Project staffing Reengineering factors
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Task Set Selector Values

(compute average value)
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Example

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Linear, Sequential Model
See text for outline of example procedure

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Evolutionary (Spiral) Model

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Example of Task Network

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Scheduling
Typical tools Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) charts Critical Path Method (CPM) Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Formal term for task structure Useful information derivable from timeline charts Earliest beginning time for a task Latest time to initiate a task without delaying project Earliest task completion time Latest task completion time Total float
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Example of Timeline Chart

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Tracking the Schedule
Conduct periodic status meetings Evaluate all Software Engineering Process Reviews Determine whether formal milestones are met on time Compare actual start date on each task to that planned Informal subjective assessment from practitioners Possible corrective actions in case of problems Re-deploy personnel Commit reserve resources Reschedule Re-scope the project
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Example Project Table

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Typical Project Plan Outline

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