Systems Engineering

System
A set or arrangement of things so related as to form a unity or organic whole. A set of facts, principles, rules, etc., classified and arranged in an orderly form so as to show a logical plan linking the various parts. A method or plan of classification or arrangement. An established way of doing something; method; procedure. January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Computer-Based Systems
Definition: A set or arrangement of elements that are organized to accomplish some pre-defined goal by processing preinformation. Elements
Software Hardware People Database Documentation Procedures
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

System of Systems -- Example

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

The System Engineering Hierarchy
A hierarchy of views are necessary, for example,
World View Domain View Element view Detailed View

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Typical Hierarchy

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

System Modeling
Define the processes that define the needs of the view under consideration Represent the behavior of the processes and the assumptions on which the behavior is based Explicitly define all inputs and outputs to each component Define the transformation between inputs and outputs of each component Represent all linkages (interfaces)
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Critical Factors
It is absolutely essential that the following be spelled out completely and in detail
Assumptions Simplifications Limitations Constraints Preferences

Changes in these is a principal contributor to software change
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Information Engineering
Architecture -- another overused word
A set of component types together with a set of principles and guidelines for their interconnection. Also used to refer to the structure of a system.

One classification of architectures
data architecture applications architecture technology infrastructure
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Information Engineering Activities
Another set of terms or phases of activity
Information strategy planning(isp) Business area analysis(baa) Business system design(bsd) Construction and integration(C&I)

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

A Diagrammatic View

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Product Engineering
Develop support infrastructure Develop systems view of components Systems analysis
allocate functions and behaviors (given requirements) determine interfaces

Component engineering Element & Detailed views
Analysis & design modeling Construction & integration
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

A Diagrammatic View

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Information Strategy Planning
Define strategic business objectives and goals Isolate the critical success factors that will enable the business to achieve goals Analyze the impact of technology and automation on goals and objectives Analyze existing information to determine its role in achieving goals and objectives Create a business-level data model businessJanuary 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Information Strategy Planning
Enterprise Modeling -- a 3-D view 3Organizational structures and functions Decomposes business functions to isolate processes that make function happen Relate objectives, goals, and CSFs to the organization and its functions

It is increasingly important that the various functions be interoperable
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Typical Organizational Chart

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Information Strategy Planning
BusinessBusiness-Level Data Modeling
focuses on the data objects required to achieve the business functions identifies relationships between customers, products, salespersons, etc.

Culmination - a series of cross reference matrices that establish the relationship between the organization, business objectives and goals, business functions, and data objects.
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Typical Relationship Among Objects

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Business Area Analysis
Establishes a detailed framework for building an information-based enterprise informationModels
data models process flow models process decomposition diagrams crosscross-reference matrices

Domain View
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Business Area Analysis
Data Modeling
Identify data object types (or classes) Determine essential attributes Determine other objects with which the object has relations Determine operations which will need to be performed on the object

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Business Area Analysis
Process Modeling - describes the business functions within a business area Information Flow Modeling - integrates process and data models to show how information flows through a business area

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Typical Process Flow Model

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

With Information Flow

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Product Engineering
Problem solving activity where desired product data, function, and behavior are analyzed and allocated to individual components Major activities
Support infrastructure Bound function, performance, constraints, and interfaces Develop alternative allocations
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Product Engineering
TradeTrade-off Criteria
Project Considerations Business Considerations Technical Analysis Manufacturing Evaluation Human Issues Environmental Interfaces Legal Considerations
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

System Analysis
Identification of Need Feasibility Study Perform economic and technical analyses Allocate functions to hardware, software, people, database Establish cost and schedule constraints Create system definition
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Feasibility Study
Economic - cost-benefit analysis costTechnical - development risk, resource availability, technology Legal - definition of infringements or violations from system development Alternatives - evaluation of alternative approaches
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Benefit Analysis

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Cost Analysis

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Modeling the System Architecture
Architecture template - user interface, input, system function and control, output, maintenance and self-test selfArchitecture context diagram - establishes the information boundary between the system being implemented and the environment in which it is to operate Architectural flow diagram - shows how information flows between subsystems January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

Architecture Template

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

CLSS Example

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Expanded Example

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

Building a Hierarchy

January 31, 1999

Assistance - Eric Christensen

System Modeling and Simulation
Reactive Systems - real-time and embedded realsystems -- particularly difficult systems to develop correctly. CASE tools - eliminate surprises when introducing a reactive system
One can build models of the systems to be built One can ³test drive´ the model before building it
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen

System Specification
Document that serves as a foundation for hardware engineering, software engineering, data base engineering, and human engineering Describes function and performance of computercomputer-based system as well as constraints An essential element required for systems engineering
January 31, 1999
Assistance - Eric Christensen