³Training & Development´ Chapter 10

Instructor: Sarwat Afzal

Training and Development:


Training and Development (T&D) Heart of a continuous effort designed to
improve employee competency and organizational performance 

Training ±Teaching operational and technical skills to do the job for which an individual is hired Development- Teaching managers and professionals the skills needed for the present and future jobs 

Training As a Process
Training is a process by which people improve their knowledge, skills and attitudes and use them to enhance their performance on the job.

Training definition
Planned efforts designed to facilitate the acquisition of relevant skills, Knowledge and attitude by Organizational members.

Teaching Vs Training
Is about educating people, sharing wisdom, making people more knowledgeable.

Is about development and application of knowledge, skills and attitudes for achieving specific objectives



helps employees to do their current jobs.

DEVELOPMENT help the individual handle future responsibilities.

Training, Development & Education 


Basic skill enhancement specific to a job or task with immediate or short term application of the employee¶s knowledge, skill and attitude and the resultant behaviour over a longer period 

Development Linked to the overall improvement 


Building the ability of the individual to interpret knowledge. Usually linked to a formal qualification

The Training & Development Process 

T&D needs  Establish specific objectives  Select T&D method(s)  Implement T&D programs  Evaluate T&D programs

Needs Assessment
Needs analysis- Developed by considering the over all organizational requirement, tasks associated with the jobs; and the degree to which skills are present  Objectives Specific Measurable Time Targeted 

Training Needs Assessment

Preliminary steps in preparing a Training & Development Program
Program Content Training & Development Objectives Actual Program Learning Principles

Need Assessment

Skills , Knowledge, Ability of workers

Evaluation Criteria


Learning Principles
Learning Principles are the guidelines to the ways in which people learn most effectively. Participation Repetition Relevance Transference Feedback



10% of what they read 20% of what they hear 30% of what they see Read Hear Words Watch still pictures Watch moving pictures 50% of what they hear and see 70% of what they say or write 90% of what they say as they do a thing Watch exhibits Watch demonstrations Make a site visit Make a dramatic presentation Simulate a real experience Do the real thing Hearing Saying Seeing & Doing Visual Receiving Verbal Receiving

Training & Development Programs 

On-the-Job Training (OJT) Job Rotation Apprenticeship and Coaching Lectures and Video Presentation Job Instruction Training Vestibule Training Role Playing & Behavioral Modeling 


Case Study Simulation Self-study & Programmed Learning Laboratory Training Action Training Computer-based Training Distance & Internet-based Training

On-the-Job Training (OJT):
Training a person to learn by actually doing it. Every employee from mailroom clerk to company president, get on-the-job training when he or she joins a firm.

Job rotation:
To cross-train employees in a variety of jobs, some trainer move a trainee from job to job.

Apprenticeship and Coaching 

It is a structured process people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training. Craft workers such as plumber, carpenter etc. are trained under the tutelage of a master craft person.

Lectures and Video Presentation
It is a quick and simple way to provide Knowledge to large group of trainees, as when the sales force needs to learn they special features of a new product.

Job Instruction Training (JIT)
Listing each job¶s basic task, along with key points, in order to provide step-by-step training for employees.  It is used in that types of jobs which consist of a logical sequence of steps also list a corresponding ³key point´ and best taught step-by-step process. 

Vestibule Training
To keep instruction from disrupting normal operations, some organizations use vestibule training.  Separate areas or vestibules are setup with equipment similar to that used on the job. 

Role Playing & Behavioral Modeling
Role playing is a device that forces trainees to assume different identities.  Behavior modeling is referred to as ³matching´ or ³copying´ or as ³observational learning´ or ³imitation´, all of these terms implies that behavior is learned or modified through the observation of some other individual. 

Case Study
In case study, trainees learn about real or hypothetical circumstances and the actions others take under those circumstances and as result a person can develop decision making skills.  A development method in which the manager is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve 

Training employees on actual equipments used on the job but conducted away from the actual work setting.  One involve a mechanical simulator that replicates the major features of the work situation. Other is computer simulation often comes in the form of games. 

Self Study and Programmed Learning
A systematic method for teaching job skill involving presenting question or facts allowing the person to respond and giving the learner immediate feed back on the accuracy of his /her answer  Computer programs with visual displays may be used instead of printed booklets. 

Laboratory Training: It is designed to enhance interpersonal skills and to develop desired behavior for future job responsibilities.  Action Learning: it takes place in small groups that seeks a solution to a real problem confronting the organization, aided by a facilitator who is either an outside consultant or a member of the firm¶s in-house staff. OR a training technique by which Management trainer are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving problem in other department. 

Evaluation for training effectiveness


What do you mean by ³Evaluation´ of training and development intervention. ³Training and Development must be regarded as both a cost and an investment to an organization.´
What does the above statement means? What does it tells us about the need to evaluate our training and development intervention? 

What do you mean by evaluation of training 


the process for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information useful to decision makers in selecting amongst alternatives. the process of determining, to what extent the ( training) objectives are actually being realized. the process of providing feedback to trainers about the effectiveness of their training.  


The process and means of evaluating training and development should be decided at the time that learning objective are established.


In summary, evaluation should try to find answers to three questions.
Is the training program effective in achieving its goals. If not, what are the deficiencies in the program. How can the deficiencies be remedied?


The training effort must demonstrably assist the organization to achieve its goals

Evaluating Human Resource Development 

opinions (reaction)  Extent of learning (learning)  Behavioral change (behavior)  Accomplishment of T&D objectives (outcomes or result)

Evaluation of T&D
Effective criteria used to evaluate Training focus on outcomes: 1- the Reaction by trainees to the training content and process. 2- the Knowledge or learning acquired through the training experience. 3- change in Behavior that result from the training. 4- Measurable Results or Improvements in the individuals or the organization, such as lower turnover, fewer accidents or less absenteeism. 

Levels of Evaluation 

REACTION Organizations evaluate the reaction level of trainees by conducting interviews or by administering questionnaires to the trainees. A reaction-level measure could be gathered by having the managers complete a survey that asked them to rate the value of the training, the style of the instructors, and the usefulness of the training to them. However, the immediate reaction may measure only how much the people liked the training rather than how it benefited them.

Levels of Evaluation 

LEARNING Learning levels can be evaluated by measuring how well trainees have learned facts, ideas, concepts, theories, and attitudes. Tests on the training material are commonly used for evaluating learning and can be given both before and after training to compare scores. To evaluate training courses at some firms, test results are used to determine how well the courses have provided employees with the desired content.

Levels of Evaluation
BEHAVIOR  Evaluating training at the behavioral level involves: (1) measuring the effect of training on job performance through interviews of trainees and their coworkers (2) observing job performance.  Behavior is more difficult to measure than reaction and learning.  Even if behaviors do change, the results that management desires may not be obtained. 

Levels of Evaluation 

RESULTS Employers evaluate results by measuring the effect of training on the achievement of organizational objectives. Because results such as productivity, turnover, quality, time, sales, and costs are relatively concrete, this type of evaluation can be done by comparing records before and after training The difficulty with measuring results is pinpointing whether it actually was training that caused the changes in results. Other factors may have had a major impact as well.

Steps in the evaluation of T&D
Evaluation Criteria Trained or Developed workers Transfer to the job Follow-up Studies



Development of Human Resources
The long term development of HR is of growing concern to HR departments. 1- It reduces company dependence on hiring new workers. 2- Opening in the organization through HR planning are more likely to be filled internally. 3- promotion & transfers also show employees that they have a career not just a job. 4- Employee feel a greater commitment to the firm. 

Development of Human Resources (contd)
HR development is also an effective way to meet several challenges, including:  Employee Obsolescence  International & domestic workforce diversity  Technological change  EEO and Affirmative Action  Employee turnover