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GENCHI : ACTUAL PLACE GENBUTSU: ACTUAL THING GENJITSU: ACTUALLY

QC TOOLS
‡ QC Tools are based on statistical methods and are effective for improving the production process and reducing its defects. ‡ The first step in finding the true cause is careful observation of the phenomenon of the defect. After such careful observation, the true cause becomes apparent.

Analyzing Problems Using Data
‡ Objective of Collecting Data
‡ Data is a guide for our actions. From data we learn pertinent facts which are useful for problem solving. ‡ Data is required for controlling and monitoring the process ‡ Data is required for analysis of nonconformance

QC TOOLS
Whenever a problem occurs: · Urgently proceed to the workplace where the fault has occurred. · Ascertain the fault visually. · Observe well the conditions leading to the fault. Listen attentively to the opinion of the operator.

QC TOOLS
QC tools lend objectivity and accuracy to observation. The principles of statistical way of thinking are: · Give greater importance to facts. · Do not express facts in terms of senses or ideas. Use figures derived from specific observed results. · Go to the actual site where problem is occurring, observe the actual object, and make measurements on that object actually by yourself.

QC TOOLS
Observational results, accompanied as they are by error and variation, are part of a hidden whole. Finding that hidden whole is observation¶s ultimate goal. Accept regular tendency, which appears in a large number of observational results as a reliable information.

QC TOOLS
Seven QC Tools are useful for analyzing problems using data. These seven tools are: Check Sheet Histogram Scatter Diagram Graphs Pareto Diagram Cause and Effect Diagram Control Charts

CHECK SHEETS
‡SIMPLIFYING DATA COLLECTION ‡ENSURES THAT NO ITEMS ARE OMITTED WHEN INSPECTING ‡STARTING POINT FOR PROBLEM SOLVING ‡USEFUL FOR PROCESS CONTROL

CHECK SHEETS
‡Check Sheet
Product: No. Inspected Inspector¶s name Type of defect Cracks Scratch Blowholes Dimension Surface finish Number of  Date: Lot no. Total 7

HISTOGRAMS
‡PLOTTING THE SHAPE OF A DISTRIBUTION ‡COMPARING THE DISTRIBUTION WITH SPECIFICATIONS ‡USEFUL FOR QUALITY, COST AND DELIVERY IMPROVEMENT ‡USEFUL FOR PROCESS CONTROL

Histograms
‡ Histogram
LSL USL

Freque ncy

Diameter

SCATTER DIAGRAMS
EXAMPLES: POSITIVE CORRELATION OVERTIME VS ERRORS HEIGHT VS WEIGHT NEGATIVE CORRELATIONEXTERNAL TEMPERATURE VS GAS BILL QUALITY VS CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS NO CORRELATION HEIGHT VS MARKS IN BOARD EXAMS

Scatter Diagrams
Positive Correlation

‡ Scatter Diagram
.. « % defective .. « . . . . Temperature .

.. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. ..

.. .. .. .. ..

Negative Correlation

Zero correlation

PARETO CHART
‡BAR CHART ‡RANKS PROBLEMS IN DESCENDING ORDER OF COST OF FREQUENCY ‡SEPARATES ³VITAL FEW´ FROM THE ³USEFUL MANY´ ‡SINGLES OUT THE REALLY SERIOUS PROBLEMS FROM AMONG ALL THE LESSER ONES ‡HIGHLIGHTS WHERE YOUR PROBLEM SOLVING ACTIVITY WILL MAKE THE GREATEST IMPACT.

PARETO CHART
‡Pareto Diagram

No. Of Problem Items

Cumulative Percentage

Problem Type

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS
‡DESIGNED TO REPRESENT A MEANINGFUL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN EFFECT AND ALL ITS POSSIBLE CAUSES. ‡PICKING UP AND ARRANGING ALL POSSIBLE CAUSES WITHOUT ANY OMISSIONS ‡USED TO INVESTIGATE DEFECT CAUSE AS WELL AS TO INVESTIGATE AN IN-CONTROL PROCESS ‡ALSO KNOWN AS FISH BONE OR ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM.

CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS
‡ Main bone

Man

Machine Problem or Effect

Environment

Material

Method

CONTROL CHARTS AND GRAPHS
CONTROL CHARTS
CHECKING WHETHER OR NOT A PROCESS IS IN CONTROL. FACILITATING PROACTIVE ACTIONS FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT.

GRAPHS
MAKING DATA VISUAL EASY FOR UNDERSTANDING AT THE WORK PLACE.

Graphs
‡ Line Graph ‡ Bar graph

Defect % Production

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Graphs
‡ Pie Chart
Scratch Blowholes

Size error

hardness

Control Chart
‡ Control chart
UCL

CL

LCL

Control Chart
‡ SPC is defined as the application of statistical methods to the measurement and analysis of variation in any process. ‡ Process variations are traceable to two kinds of causes: ‡ Chance (or random) causes which are inherent in the process ‡ Assignable (or special) causes which cause excessive variation.

Control Chart
‡ A process that is operating without assignable causes of variation is said to be ³in a state of statistical control´. ‡ X bar and R chart ‡ UCL = X ± A2R ‡ LCL = X ± A2R ‡ CL = X

Control Chart
‡ p chart (control chart for defectives) ‡ UCL = p ± 3 * SQRT ( p(1-p)/n) ‡ LCL = p ± 3 * SQRT ( p(1-p)/n) ‡ CL = p

Control Chart
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ c chart (control chart for defects) UCL = c + 3 * SQRT (c) LCL = c - 3 * SQRT ( c) CL = c

Process Capability
‡ Cp = (USL ± LSL)/6W ‡ Cpk = Min (( USL-Mean)/3s, (Mean ± LSL)/3s) ‡ For traditional quality company, Cp • 1.33 ‡ For six sigma quality company, Cp = 2 and Cpk = 1.5