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WATER TREATMENT

A. TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER AND


B. TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER

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OBJECTIVES - STUDENTS SHOULD:


List and describe treatment methods for wastewater.
List and describe treatment methods for drinking
water.
Compare and contrast treatment methods and goals
of wastewater and drinking water.

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JUSTIFICATION FOR WASTEWATER


TREATMENT:
Pollution from sewage is a primary environmental health
hazard (wastewater effluent).
The purpose of municipal wastewater treatment is to limit
pollution of the receiving watercourse.
The receiving watercourse may also be a source of
drinking water.

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GOALS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT:

Reduction of organic load of the


wastewater effluent to limit
eutrophication (BOD, COD
limits),
Reduction of microbiological
contamination that may
transmit infectious disease.
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Pre-treatment
Preliminary treatment
Primary treatment
Secondary treatment
Sludge (biosolids)
disposal
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Wastewater Treatment Scheme


Disinfectant
WW effluent
WW
influent

Preliminary

Primary

Secondary

sludge

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Tertiary

Sludge Treatment
and Disposal

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
PROCESSES:

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Pre-treatment
- Occurs in business or industry prior to discharge
- Prevention of toxic chemicals or excess nutrients
being discharged in wastewater
Preliminary treatment is a physical process that
removes large contaminants.
Primary treatment involves physical sedimentation of
particulates.
Secondary treatment involves physical and biological
treatment to reduce organic load of wastewater.
Tertiary or advanced treatments.
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TERTIARY OR ADVANCED TREATMENT


Nitrification-denitrification process to
remove N and P
Filtration
Carbon Adsorption

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Bar Screen
catches large
objects that have gotten
into sewer system such
as bricks, bottles, pieces
of wood, etc.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Grit Chamber
- removes rocks, gravel, broken
glass, etc.
Mesh Screen
- removes diapers, combs, towels,
plastic bags, syringes, etc.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Preliminary Treatment

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Primary Treatment
-- a physical process
-- wastewater flow is
slowed down and suspended
solids settle to the bottom by
gravity
-- the material that settles
is called sludge or biosolids
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PRIMARY TREATMENT

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Primary Treatment

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T
A
D
N
W
A IN
N
O N
I
T IO
A
T
L
U LA T
G
A CU EN
CO OC TM
FL E A
TR

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R
E

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COAGULATION &
FLOCCULATION

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WHAT IS COAGULATION?
Coagulation is the destabilization of colloids by
addition of
chemicals that neutralize the negative charges
The chemicals are known as coagulants, usually
higher valence
cationic salts (Al3+, Fe3+ etc.)
Coagulation is essentially a chemical process

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COAGULATION AIM

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WHAT IS FLOCCULATION?

Flocculation is the agglomeration of destabilized


particles into
a large size particles known as flocs which can be
effectively removed
by sedimentation or flotation.

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Why coagulation and flocculation?


Various sizes of particles in raw water

Type
Type

Settling
Settlingvelocity
velocity

10
10
11

Pebble
Pebble
Course
Coursesand
sand

0.73
0.73m/s
m/s
0.23
0.23m/s
m/s

0.1
0.1
0.01
0.01

Fine
Finesand
sand
Silt
Silt

0.6
0.6m/min
m/min
8.6
8.6m/d
m/d

0.0001
0.0001 (10
(10micron)
micron)
0.000001
0.000001(1(1nano)
nano)

Large
Largecolloids
colloids
Small
Smallcolloids
colloids

0.3
0.3m/y
m/y
33m/million
m/millionyy

GravIty settlIng

Particle
Particlediameter
diameter(mm)
(mm)

Colloids so small: gravity settling not possible


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Colloid Stability
Colloid
H2O

Colloids have a net negative surface charge


Electrostatic force prevents them from agglomeration

-- -Colloid - A

Repulsion

-- -Colloid - B

Brownian motion keeps the colloids in suspension


Impossible to remove colloids by gravity
settling

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COLLOIDAL INTERACTION

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CHARGE REDUCTION

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COLLOID DESTABILIZATION
Colloids can be destabilized by
charge neutralization
Positively charges ions (Na+, Mg2+,
Al3+, Fe3+ etc.) neutralize the
colloidal negative charges and thus
destabilize them.
With destabilization, colloids
aggregate in size and start to settle
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Force analysis on colloids

The integral of
the combined
forces is the
energy barrier
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FLOCCULATION AIDS

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FLOC FORMATION WITH POLYMERS

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Jar
Tests
The jar test a laboratory procedure to determine the
optimum pH
and the optimum coagulant dose
A jar test simulates the coagulation and flocculation
processes
Determination of optimum

pH

Fill the jars with raw water sample


(500 or 1000 mL) usually 6 jars
Adjust pH of the jars while mixing
using H2SO4 or NaOH/lime
(pH: 5.0; 5.5; 6.0; 6.5; 7.0; 7.5)
Add same dose of the selected
coagulant (alum or iron) to each jar
(Coagulant dose: 5 or 10 mg/L)
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Jar Test

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Jar Tests determining optimum p


Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1 minute. The rapid mix
helps to disperse the coagulant throughout each container
Reduce the stirring speed to 25 to 30 rpm
and continue mixing for 15 to 20 mins
This slower mixing speed helps
promote floc formation by
enhancing particle collisions,
which lead to larger flocs

Jar Test setup

Turn off the mixers and allow


flocs to settle for 30 to 45 mins
Measure the final residual
turbidity in each jar
Plot residual turbidity against pH
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Jar Tests optimum pH


Optimum pH: 6.3

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Optimum
coagulant
dose
Repeat all the previous steps
This time adjust pH of all jars at
optimum (6.3 found from first test)
while mixing using H2SO4 or
NaOH/lime
Add different doses of the selected
coagulant (alum or iron) to each jar
(Coagulant dose: 5; 7; 10; 12; 15; 20 mg/L)
Rapid mix each jar at 100 to 150 rpm for 1
minute. The rapid
mix helps to disperse the coagulant throughout
each container
Reduce
the stirring speed to 25 to 30 rpm for 15
15
/
15
2/
to 120
mins

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Optimum coagulant
dose

Turn off the mixers and allow flocs to settle for 30 to


45 mins
Then measure the final residual turbidity in each jar
Plot residual turbidity
against coagulant dose

Optimum coagulant dose:


12.5 mg/L

The coagulant dose


with
the lowest residual
turbidity will be the
optimum coagulant
dose /15
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Coagulant Dose mg/L

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Hydraulic Jump: Hydraulic Jump creates turbulence and


thus help better mixing.
Coagulant

In-line flash mixing


Mechanical mixing
Back mix impeller

flat-blade impeller

Inflow
Chemical
feeding
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Chemical
feeding

Inflow

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Chemical
feeding

Inflow

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Relative coagulating power


Na+ = 1;
Al3+ > 1000;

Mg2+ = 30
Fe3+ > 1000

Typical coagulants
Aluminum sulfate: Al2(SO4)3.14 H2O
Iron salt- Ferric sulfate:

Fe2(SO4)3

Iron salt- Ferric chloride: Fe2Cl3


Polyaluminum chloride (PAC): Al2(OH)3Cl3
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Aluminum Chemistry
With alum addition, what happens to water
pH?
Al2(SO4)3.14 H2O 2Al(OH)3+ 8H2O + 3H2SO4-2
1 mole of alum consumes 6 moles of bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Al2(SO4)3.14 H2O + 6HCO3- 2Al(OH)3+ 6CO2 + 14H2O + 3SO4-2
If alkalinity is not enough, pH will reduce greatly
Lime or sodium carbonate may be needed to neutralize the acid.

(Optimum pH: 5.5 6.5)


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AL3+ SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF PH

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Iron Chemistry
FeCl3+ 3HCO3- Fe(OH)3+ 3CO2 + 3ClWith iron salt addition, what happens to water pH?
(Wider pH range of: 4 9; Best pH range of 4.5 5.5)
1 mole of FeCl3 consumes 3 moles of bicarbonate (HCO3-)
If alkalinity is not enough, pH will reduce greatly due to
hydrochloric acid formation. Lime or sodium carbonate may be
needed to neutralize the acid. Lime is the cheapest.

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FE SPECIES AS A FUNCTION OF PH

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COAGULANT AIDS
Other substances than
coagulants used:
- Clay minerals
- Silicates
- Polymers

Polymers are often


either anionic or
cationic to aid
coagulation.
Polymers also
reinforce
flocs
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FLOCCULATION
Flocculation - agglomeration of colloids by collisions to form
separable flocs

Examples - milk, blood, seawater

Mechanisms - perikinetic, collisions from Brownian motion


- orthokinetic, induced collisions through stirring

Orthokinetic flocculation
body

Velocity gradient, relative movement between colloids in a fluid


RMS velocity gradient

Camp No. Gt

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Typical 2x 104 - 105

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Mechanical Flocculator

Transverse paddle

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Cross flow Flocculator (sectional view)

Plan (top view)

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Hydraulic Flocculation
L

Horizontally baffled tank


The water flows horizontally.
The baffle walls help to create
turbulence and thus facilitate mixing

W
Plan view (horizontal flow)

Vertically baffled tank


The water flows vertically. The baffle
walls help to create turbulence and thus
facilitate mixing

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Isometric View (vertical flow)


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Hydraulic Flocculation

http://www.environmental-center.com/magazine/iwa/jws/art4.pdf
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HYDRAULIC FLOCCULATORS

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Hydraulic flocculators:
simple technology

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Hydraulic Flocculation: Pipe

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Hydraulic Flocculation: Pipe

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Hydraulic Flocculation:Large stirrers

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Mechanical
flocculators

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Mecahnical
flocculators

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Mechanical
flocculators

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ANOTHER MECHANICAL FLOCCULATOR

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Flocculators integrated
with settling

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Flocculators integrated with


settling

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Flocculators both sides of


settling

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Flocculator perforated wall


background)

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(in

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WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
Secondary
Treatment

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WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
Secondary Treatment
Secondary treatment is a biological
process
Utilizes bacteria and algae to metabolize
organic matter in the wastewater
In Cape Girardeau secondary treatment
occurs on the trickling filter
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WASTEWATER
TREATMENT

From secondary treatment on the


trickling filter water flows to the
final clarifiers for further removal
of sludge.
The final clarifiers are another set
of primary sedimentation tanks.
From the final clarifiers the water is
discharged back to the River.
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ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT


More than 25% of all households in the
Indonesia are served by on-site
treatment systems.
About 3 billion gallons of wastewater is
discharged each day to on-site
wastewater treatment systems.
Potential disease transmission risks
through wastewater should be limited.

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TYPICAL SEPTIC SYSTEM DESIGN:

Septic systems typically consist of:


A septic tank (concrete, with inlet and outlet, baffles, and removable
top for cleaning), which collects and holds waste,
A drain field or tile field (plastic or tile pipe with outlets) which allows
wastewater effluent to infiltrate slowly into soils.
Plumbing connections.

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PERIODIC SUMMERY

Treatment of wastewater is necessary to


protect the environment and preserve
the quality of water for drinking.
Treatment of municipal wastewater
typically includes preliminary, primary
treatment, secondary treatment, and
tertiary treatment.
On-site wastewater treatment is
facilitated by septic tank systems.
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B. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT:

Clarification - primarily a physical process, but may be aided


by addition of chemicals.
Filtration - also primarily physical, but chemicals may aid the
process.
Disinfection - typically a chemical process that reduces
pathogenic microorganisms.

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B1. CLARIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER:

Clarification removes particulates that contribute to turbidity


and contamination of water.
Clarification is aided by chemicals which cause particulates to
aggregate, precipitate, and form sediment (sludge).

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B2. FILTRATION:

Separate nonsettleable solids from water.


Combined with coagulation/clarification, filtration can remove
84%-96% turbidity, coliform bacteria 97-99.95%, and >99%
Giardia.

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TYPE OF FILTRATION
Rapid filtration - uses gravity (faster flow).
Slow filtration - uses gravity [slower flow].
Pressure sand filters-use water pressure.
Diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration
Microstraining - uses fine steel fabric (sometimes used prior to
other filtrations).

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FILTER MEDIA
Filter media should be:
coarse enough to retain large quantities of floc
sufficiently fine to prevent passage of suspended
solids
deep enough to allow relative long filter runs

Granular-medium filters (Rapid


Sand Filters]
Anthracite on the very top (least dense),
fine sand on top of supporting coarse sand(less
dense), which lays on top of
gravel layer (highest density).

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CLEANING (BACKWASHING) FILTERS

Determination of how often to back-wash can be made on the


basis of:
Head loss (pressure loss),
Loss of water quality (e.g., increased turbidity), or
Time since last backwash.

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BACKWASHING PROCESS
Water flow is reversed through the filter bed.
The rate of backwash is designed to partially expand (fluidize) the
filter bed.
Suspended matter is removed by shear forces as the water moves
through the fluidized bed.
Additional cleaning occurs when particles of the bed abrade against
each other.

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FLOW CONTROL THROUGH FILTERS

Constant-rate filtration
Flow rate is controlled by limiting the discharge rate, limiting the rate
of inflow by a weir, or
by pumping or use of influent flow-splitting weir.
Declining-rate filtration
Rate of flow declines as the rate of head loss builds (influent- or
effluent-controlled).

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PERIODIC SUMMARY:

Drinking water treatment typically include clarification,


filtration and disinfection.
Drinking water treatment should make water both potable
and palatable.
Wastewater and drinking water treatment processes are
similar in several ways.

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VII. WATER TREATMENT


B3. DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER

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OBJECTIVES - STUDENTS SHOULD:

Define and give examples of types of disinfection techniques


for drinking water.
Distinguish between physical and chemical disinfection
techniques.
Evaluate the safety, cost, effectiveness, and popularity of
various disinfection techniques.

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TYPES OF DISINFECTION:

Physical disinfection techniques include boiling and irradiation


with ultraviolet light.
Chemical disinfection techniques include adding chlorine,
bromine, iodine, and ozone to water.

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PHYSICAL DISINFECTION (BOILING):

Boiling kills vegetative bacterial cells, but spores, viruses, and some
protozoa may survive long periods of boiling.
Boiling may also volatilize VOCs.
Boiling is an effective method for small batches of water during
water emergencies.
Boiling is prohibitively expensive for large quantities of water.

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PHYSICAL DISINFECTION
(UVradiation
RADIATION):
Ultraviolet
is an effective and relatively safe
disinfection method, but is relatively expensive and not
widely used.
UV light disrupts DNA of microbial cells, preventing
reproduction.
Specific wavelengths, intensities, distances, flow rates, and
retention times are required.

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CHEMICAL DISINFECTION:

Chemicals added to water for disinfection include chlorine,


bromine, and iodine.
Bromine is not recommended for drinking water disinfection,
but may be used for pool water.
Iodine is sometimes used for drinking water disinfection, but
causes a bad aftertaste.

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CHLORINE DISINFECTION:
Chlorination is a cheap, effective, relatively harmless (and
therefore most popular) disinfection method.
Chlorine is added as a gas or hypochlorite solution.
Hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions form in solution,
which are strong chemical oxidants, and kill microbes.

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CHLORINE DISINFECTION (CONT.):

Combined chlorine is the proportion that combines with organic


matter.
Free chlorine is the amount that remains to kill microbes in the
distribution system (0.5 ppm, 10 min.)
Total chlorine is the combined concen-tration of combined and
free chlorine.

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DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS)

Chlorine (or bromine or iodine) +


precursors (organic compounds) =
THM(Trihalomethanes)
eg. Chloroform (CHCl3), Bromoform (CHBr3), Iodoform
(CHI3), chlorobromoform (CHBrCl2), Bromochloroform
(CHBr2Cl), Bromoidodform (CHBr2I), etc.

THMs are carcinogenic


Choroamine disinfection reduce THMs
production due to preferential reaction
of chlorine with ammonia
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OZONATION:
Ozone (O3) is an effective, relatively harmless disinfection
method, but is expensive (and therefore less popular than
chlorine).
Ozone is a strong oxidant, that produces hydroxyl free radicals
that react with organic and inorganic molecules in water to
kill microbes.

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SUMMARY:
Disinfection is the destruction of microorganisms in drinking
water to safe levels.
Disinfection techniques include physical (boiling, ultraviolet
light) and chemical methods (chlorine, bromine, iodine, and
ozone).

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