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MYCOLOGY AND

PLANT PATHOLOGY
The science of Fungi and Plant Diseases

INTRODUCTION
FUNGI (funjee or funjai)
Fungi and Bacteria were in plant kingdom because of:
Spore production
Cell Wall

Bacteria were removed being prokaryotes


Fungi Remained in plant kingdom
But it was recognized later that Fungi, unlike plants
1.
2.
3.
4.

Lack Plastids
Have Cell walls without cellulose
Have bodies which are filamentous not parenchymatous
Have heterotrophic nutrition

Finally, fungi were given the status of a kingdom of their own

INTRODUCTION
FUNGI..Root of the Word
Fungus: Latin: mushroom, fungus; probably related to Greek
spongos sponge
Mycology: Greek Mykes : Cap or Mushroom

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS FUNGI:
Fungi:
A taxon (pl. taxa) is any group of organisms that is given a formal
taxonomic name.
A monophyletic taxon is one that includes a group of organisms
descended from a single ancestor.
Monophyletic taxon : A group composed of a collection of
organisms, including the most recent common ancestor of all those
organisms and all the descendants of that most recent common
ancestor. A monophyletic taxon is also called a clade.
A polyphyletic taxon is composed of unrelated organisms
descended from more than one ancestor.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS FUNGI:
About 80 000 to 120 000 species of fungi have been described to
date.
The total number of species is estimated at around 1.5 million
(Hawksworth, 2001).
Fungi are not a natural, monophyletic group;
They are classified together only provisionally until we have enough
information to understand their true evolutionary relationships.

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS FUNGI--Definition
eukaryotic, spore-bearing, achlorophyllous organisms
that generally reproduce sexually and asexually and
whose usually filamentous, branched somatic structures are
typically surrounded by cell walls containing chitin or
cellulose, or both of these substances,
together with many other complex organic molecules.

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS FUNGI--Definition
True fungi are defined as
1. eukaryotic organisms
2. lacking plastids,
3. with absorptive nutrition,
4. reproducing both sexually and asexually by spores and
5. hyphae surrounded by cell walls containing chitin and glucans, and
6. mitochondria with flattened cristae and peroxisomes.

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS FUNGI:
1. Nutrition. Heterotrophic (lacking photosynthesis), feeding by
absorption rather than ingestion.
2. Vegetative state. On or in the substratum, typically as a nonmotile mycelium of hyphae showing internal protoplasmic
streaming. Motile reproductive states may occur.
3. Cell wall. Typically present, usually based on glucans and chitin,
rarely on glucans and cellulose (Oomycota).
4. Nuclear status. Eukaryotic, uni- or multinucleate, the thallus
being homo- or heterokaryotic, haploid, dikaryotic or diploid, the
latter usually of short duration (but exceptions are known from
several taxonomic groups).

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS FUNGI:
5. Life cycle. Simple or, more usually, complex.
6. Reproduction. The following reproductive events may occur: sexual (i.e. nuclear
fusion and meiosis) and/or parasexual (i.e. involving nuclear fusion followed by
gradual de-diploidization) and/or asexual (i.e. purely mitotic nuclear division).
7. Propagules. These are typically microscopically small spores produced in high
numbers. Motile spores are confined to certain groups.
8. Sporocarps. Microscopic or macroscopic and showing characteristic shapes but
only limited tissue differentiation.
9. Habitat. Ubiquitous in terrestrial and freshwater habitats, less so in the marine
environment.
10. Ecology. Important ecological roles as saprotrophs, mutualistic symbionts,
parasites, or
hyperparasites.
11. Distribution. Cosmopolitan.

FUNGI GENERAL CHARACTERS


THALLUS ORGANISATION
Some fungi are unicellular, but the majority have a differentiated thallus
consisting of threadlike, tubular filaments, the hyphae (sing. hypha, Gr.
hyphe = web).
In most fungi, the thallus is differentiated into a vegetative part which
absorbs nutrients, and a reproductive part which forms reproductive
structures.
Such thalli are called eucarpic (Gr. eu = good + karpos = fruit).
In some, however, the thallus does not show this differentiation and
after a phase of vegetative growth, changes into one or more
reproductive structures.
Such thalli are called holocarpic (Gr. holos = entirely + karpos = fruit).
The network of hyphae constituting the body (thallus, soma) of a fungus
is called a mycelium (Gr. mykes = mushroom, fungus).

FUNGI GENERAL CHARACTERS


THALLUS ORGANISATION
HYPHA: A hypha is made up of a thin transparent, tubular filament,
filled with a layer of cytoplasm varying in thickness.
In the simpler filamentous fungi, septa are always formed at the
base of reproductive organs.
Septa are lacking elsewhere.
The vigorously growing hyphae are coenoecytic (Gr. koinos =
common + kytos = a hollow vessel).
Coenoecytic means they are nonseptate or aseptate with
nuclei in a common matrix (Fig. 1.1).

FUNGI GENERAL CHARACTERS


THALLUS ORGANISATION
The Oomycota and Zygomycota generally have aseptate hyphae.
In which the nuclei lie in a common mass of cytoplasm (Fig. 1.1a).
Such a condition is described as coenocytic.
Greek. koinos = shared, in common; kytos = a hollow vessel, here
meaning cell.

FUNGI GENERAL CHARACTERS


Fig 1.1. Various growth forms of fungi. (a)
Aseptate hypha of Mucor mucedo
(Zygomycota).The hypha branches to form a
mycelium.
(b) Septate branched hypha of Trichoderma
viride (Ascomycota). Septa are indicated by
arrows.
(c) Yeast cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe
(Ascomycota) dividing by binary fission.
(d) Yeast cells of Dioszegia takashimae
(Basidiomycota) dividing by budding.
(e) Pseudohypha of Candida parapsilosis
(Ascomycota), which is regarded as an
intermediate stage between yeast cells and
true hyphae.

FUNGI GENERAL CHARACTERS

Aseptate or Coenocytic Hyphae

FUNGI GENERAL CHARACTERS


THALLUS ORGANISATION
When the mycelium contains genetically identical nuclei, it is called
homokaryotic (Gr. homo = the same + karyon = nucleus), and
when it contains two or more genetically different nuclei, the mycelium
is said to be heterokaryotic (Gr. Heteros = other + karyon = nucleus).
In the more complex groups, the hyphae are divided into compartments
or cells by cross walls called septa (Fig. 1.1): primary and adventitious.
The primary septa are formed during nuclear divisions and are laid
down between daughter nuclei.
The adventitious septa are formed independently of nuclear division
and are especially associated with changes in the concentration of the
protoplasm as it moves from one part of the hypha to another.

FUNGI GENERAL CHARACTERS

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

The terms soma and somatic (Gr. soma, somatos = body) are
equivalent to the term vegetative in plants.
As fungi are not plants, we will try not to use the term vegetative in
reference to these organisms.
Thallus (pi. thalli) also is used to refer to the entire body of the
fungus, a term that also has been applied to bryophytes and algae
as well.
The filaments or hyphae grow by apical growth.
Most part of a fungus are capable of growth.
Almost any part of a fungus is usually able to produce new growing
point and to start a new individual.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

Collectively, hyphae make up the body of the fungus, which is


termed the mycelium (pl. mycelia; Gr. mykes = mushroom).
However, not all fungi produce mycelia composed of hyphae.
Many forms, commonly referred to as yeasts (Fig. 1.1d), exist as
single cells that are capable of reproducing quickly by budding (Fig.
1.1e) or fission.
Some species of fungi can exist as either hyphae or single cells and
are said to be dimorphic
The term yeast is a morphological term and does not refer to a
particular taxonomic group.
Dimorphism is, for example, common in forms that cause diseases of
humans and other animals.
Many of these organisms grow as hyphae outside their hosts but
assume a yeast like appearance inside the hosts.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

Yeast Cells
Hyphae

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

Ultrastructural studies of a variety of different types of fungi have


shown that septa vary in their construction.
Some are simple and others complex
All types appear to form by the centripetal growth from the hyphal
wall inward.
In most cases, a fully developed septum possesses a single central
pore (Fig. 2-5A)
The protoplasts of adjacent hyphal compartments are continuous
through this pore.
It is usually large enough to permit the passage of various
organelles including even nuclei (Fig. 2-5B).
In the most complex fungi the septum wall near the central pore is
swollen or inflated to form a barrel-shaped structure.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

Transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of fungal septa. (A) Septum with a


single central pore (arrowhead) (B) Example of a nucleus (N) migrating through
a septal pore;

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

In the most complex fungi the septum wall near the central pore is
swollen or inflated to form a barrel-shaped structure.
This type of septum is referred to as a dolipore septum (L. dolium
= a large jar or cask, i.e., barrel).
In most instances a membranous structure called the septal pore
cap or parenthosome is present in the cytoplasm on either side of
a dolipore
septum.
Depending
upon
the species
involved, the septal pore cap may
be perforate or imperforate.
Septa with multiple, small
micropores or plasmodesmata-like
channels (Fig. 2-6) also have been
reported in a few fungi that are not
closely related to each other.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

ROLES OF SEPTA

1. They might help to provide structural support to hyphae.


Especially in relatively dry conditions.
The septate fungi in general are much more tolerant to water stress than aseptate
fungi.

2. Septa also can help to defend against damage


The septal pores become plugged by Woronin bodies or other materials.

3. The main significance of septa is thought to be in differentiation.


If a septum is plugged then the compartments on its either side can develop in
different ways by differential gene expression or biochemical activity.
The aseptate fungi produce complete cross-walls to isolate old parts of the hyphae OR
To produce asexual or sexual structures.
In effect, the blocking of septal pores enables a fungus to transform from a continuous
series of compartments to a number of independent cells or regions that can undergo
separate development.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Functions

Each fungal hypha is surrounded by a definite cell wall.


The cell wall plays several other important roles in the life of a fungus.
1. The wall maintains turgor.
2. The wall confers shape to the hypha,
3. It acts as a filter controlling to some extent what enters the fungal
protoplast.
4. It protects the protoplast against environmental hazards, and
5. It functions in the recognition of events associated
1. with sexual reproduction
2. with various interactions of fungi with plant and animal symbionts.

6. Presence of pigments such as melanin in the wall can protect the cells
against ultraviolet radiation or the lytic enzymes of other organisms.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Functions

6. The wall can also have several physiological roles.


a) It can act as binding site for enzymes, such as invertase
b) and it can also have antigenic properties that mediate the interactions

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Chemical Composition


The fungal cell wall is a dynamic structure.
It is subject to change and modification at different stages in the life of
a fungus.
It is composed basically of a skeletal or microfibrillar component located
to the inner side of the wall
It (skeletal component) is usually embedded in an amorphous matrix
material that extends to the outer surface of the wall.
The skeletal component consists of highly crystalline, water insoluble
materials
That include -linked glucans and chitin
The matrix consists mainly of polysaccharides that are mostly water
soluble.
These latter polysaccharides include -glucans and glycoproteins.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Chemical Composition


In the case of the fungi, the term glucan usually is restricted to
polysaccharides.
Which are made solely or partly of glucose molecules.
The linkages are through -1,3, -1,6, -1,3 or -1,6 linkages.
The most abundant and most thoroughly studied fungal glucans are glucans
They contain variable proportions of -1,3 and -1,6 linkages.
Proteins represent the third important component of the fungal walls.
Proteins have two kinds of roles: as
Enzymes, they are involved in the synthesis or lysis of the cell wall or in
extracellular digestion, and
Also function as structural proteins.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Chitin


The fungal cell wall is a supramolecular network outside the plasma
membrane.
It is formed by structural polysaccharides, including chitin, and
proteins and glycoproteins.
The term chitin usually refers to a -1,4-linked homopolymer of Nacetylglucosamine occurring in a microcrystalline condition.
(C16H26O10N2)n

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Structure

General pattern of wall architecture in a mature region of a hypha of Neurospora crassa

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Structure


General pattern of wall architecture was studied in Neurospora
crassa and was found to be quite constant for other fungi.
It consists of the following layers:
1. An outermost layer of amorphous glucans, predominantly with
(-1,3- and P-1,6 linkages, which are degraded by the enzyme
laminarinase.
2. A reticulum of glycoprotein embedded in a protein matrix.
This layer is not commonly found in several other fungi studied
except in Neurospora.
3. A more or less discrete layer of protein.
4. Chitin or cellulose micro-fibrils embedded in protein forming the
innermost layer.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

CELL WALL Structure


Both inner microfibrillar component (cellulose, chitin) and outer
non-fibrillar or matrix component (glucan, proteins, mannan) are
bonded to each other and amongst themselves by covalent bonds
The total wall thickness is about 125 nm in the mature region of the
hyphae.
However, at the growing tip the wall is simpler and much thinner,
about 50 nm
At tip consisting of only two wall layers - inner chitinons layer and
outer proteinaceous layer.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

THE PLASMA MEMBRANE


The plasma membrane of fungi is similar to that of other
eukaryotes
It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins
and sterols.
However, the fungal membrane is unique in one respect:
The main membrane sterol is ergosterol, in contrast to
cholesterol in animals and the phytosterols in plants.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

THE PLASMA MEMBRANE


The main role of the plasma membrane is to:
A. Regulate the uptake and release of materials;
B. Anchor some enzymes
i.
ii.

the two main wall synthetic enzymes, chitin synthase and glucan
synthetase, are integral membrane proteins;
that are anchored in the membrane in such a way that they produce
polysaccharide chains from the outer membrane face;

C. relay signals from the external environment to the cell interior.


This process is known as signal transduction.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

THE NUCLEUS
The hyphae of fungi almost invariably contain large numbers of nuclei.
In aseptate forms, nuclei generally appear to be distributed randomly
throughout the cytoplasm of an actively growing hypha.
In septate forms, individual hyphal compartments, may, depending
upon the species involved and the phase of the life cycle examined,
routinely contain one, two, or many nuclei.
Some species possess special mechanisms that ensure that only two
genetically compatible nuclei are present in each compartment of a
hypha.
Most fungi are haploid with chromosome numbers ranging from
about 6 to 20 (Table 3.3),
but the Oomycota are diploid, and some other fungi can alternate
between haploid and diploid generations.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

THE NUCLEUS
Haploid chromosome numbers in some fungi
Myxomycota Dictyostelium discoideum

Ascomycota

Neurospora crassa

Ascomycota

Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans 8

Ascomycota

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Basidiomycot
Schizophyllum commune
a
Basidiomycot
Ustilago maydis
a

16
6
20

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

THE NUCLEUS
The hyphae of fungi almost invariably contain large numbers of nuclei.
In aseptate forms, nuclei generally appear to be distributed randomly
throughout the cytoplasm of an actively growing hypha.
In septate forms, individual hyphal compartments, may, depending
upon the species involved and the phase of the life cycle examined,
routinely contain one, two, or many nuclei.
Some species possess special mechanisms that ensure that only two
genetically compatible nuclei are present in each compartment of a
hypha.
Most fungi are haploid with chromosome numbers ranging from
about 6 to 20 (Table 3.3),
but the Oomycota are diploid, and some other fungi can alternate
between haploid and diploid generations.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

SIZE

1-2 m to 20-25 m diameter (e.g. Basidiobolus ranarum,


Chytridiomycota.

SHAPE
Generally spherical to ovoid in shape.

Nuclear divisions intranuclear


Nuclear membrane and the nucleolus usually remain intact during
most stages of mitosis.
It breaks in the interzonal region and then re-forms around the
daughter nuclei.
There is no clear metaphase plate;
The chromosomes are usually dispersed randomly
At anaphase the daughter chromatids pull apart

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

Most fungi do not have typical centrioles


They have a nucleus-associated various types of bodies, commonly
known as spindle-pole bodies (SPBs).
These structures functions like a centriole, as a centre for
microtubule assembly during mitotic and meiotic divisions,
SPBs are also known as microtubule organising centres.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
FUNGAL ORGANELLES
Mitochondria
Numerous per hypha
Thread-like or lobed
Cristae flattened

Fungal cytoplasm contains

ribosomes,
endoplasmic reticulum (ER),
vacuoles,
lipid bodies,
glycogen storage particles,
Golgi bodies,
microbodies,
filasomes,
microtubules and microfilaments.

THALLUS ORGANISATION

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

Typically, Golgi bodies very simple


It consists of a single cisternal element.
LOMASOMES
Membranous structures found between plasma membrane and
the hyphal wall in different types of fungi.
They are probably fixation artifacts.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

THALLUS ORGANISATION

Vacuoles
Rounded structures in the older regions of hyphae
Recently it has shown that there is also a tubular vacuolar system
extending into the tip cells.
It is an extremely dynamic system, consisting of narrow tubules which can
dilate and contract, as inflated elements travel along them in a peristaltic
manner.
functions:
I. Storage of compounds: accumulate phosphates in the form of
polyphosphate. storage of calcium, which can be released into the
cytoplasm as part of the intracellular signaling system.
II. Recycling of cellular metabolites: Vacuoles contain proteases for
breaking down cellular proteins and recycling of the amino acids.
III. Regulation of cellular pH

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
GROWTH AND NUTRITION
The fungi are heterotrophs
They are unable to fix carbon
Exhibit absorptive nutrition.
Nutrients that enter their bodies must pass through the cell wall and plasma
membrane.
Fungi are described as organisms whose "stomachs" are outside their
bodies.
They do not ingest foods as animals do.
Fungi release digestive enzymes into the external environment.
Enzymes break down large and relatively insoluble molecules into smaller,
soluble molecules that then can be absorbed.
Free water is required for diffusion of soluble nutrients into the cells.
Without some free water, fungi cannot carry out normal metabolism.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

GROWTH AND NUTRITION


Factors required for growth
1. A suitable food source,
2. Moisture
3. Temperature,
4. pH, and
5. Oxygen.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
1. FOOD

As a group, fungi are able to utilize almost any carbon source as


food.
Some are omnivorous and can grow on virtually anything that
contains organic matter.
The common green mold (Penicillium) and the common black
mold (Aspergillus), are good examples of omnivorous fungi.
Afew obligate parasites require living protoplasm for food
Ultimately, however, food depends, to a large extent on what
digestive enzymes it is capable of producing and releasing into
the environment.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
2. MOISTURE

Some fungi live in water.


Most species do not grow well when submerged in water due to
low oxygen availability.
However, the thin-walled hyphae are very susceptible to
desiccation.
They require a more or less continuous source of water in order
to grow.
Some species are capable of growing in salt water.
A few osmophilic forms can grow on substrates containing ex
tremely high concentrations of solutes.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
3. TEMPERATURE

The optima for most species are between 25 and 30C.


Lower and upper limits of about 10 and 40C.
However, certain thermophilic forms have optima above 40C.
Some may grow under temperatures as high as the upper 50s in
composting habitats.
There are some cold-loving or psychrophilic fungi that are
capable of growing below the freezing point of water.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
4. pH

The pH optima vary greatly.


Generally speaking, most seem to grow best at pH level 47.
They alter pH levels in the microenvironments around their thalli.
This is because fungi
i. digest and
ii. consume the materials in which they grow and
iii. release metabolic products into their environment.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
5. Oxygen

The majority of fungi are aerobes


A number of species, including, certain types of yeasts, are
facultative anaerobes.
A few species of Chytridiomycota are obligately fermentative
They are incapable of oxidative respiration even if oxygen is
available.
End product of anaerobic respiration can be either
i.
ii.

Ethyl alcohol or
Lactic acid.

In a few species a mixture of these two compounds is produced.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
NUTRITION

On the basis of their mode of nutrition, they have been broadly


divided into three categories:
1. Saprotrophs or saprobes
2. Parasites
3. Symbionts/mutualists
. 1. SAPROTROPHS
. Many fungi are saprobes (Gr. sapros = rotten + bios = life)
. They obtain their food by attacking dead organic matter.
. They can attack almost any conceivable substance.
. In fact, wherever adequate moisture, temperature, and organic
substrates are available, fungi are present.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Along with some bacteria, saprotrophs are the great recyclers of


organic matter in natural and agricultural environment.
It involves the breakdown of complex materials, like cellulose etc.
into simple molecules
That can be used by fungi themselves and by other organisms.
Different fungi are adapted to grow on different types of
polymers depending on the enzymes they produce.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
2. PARASITES
A considerable number of fungi live as parasites (Gr. parasitos = eating
beside another) on plants, animals, or in some cases even other fungi.
An organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and
benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense.
A parasite can be defined as an organism that obtains some or all
of its nutrients from the living tissues of another organism, while
being in intimate association with it.
The majority of parasitic fungi are, however, capable of living on dead
organic materials (grow on synthetic media).
Those forms that fail to grow on synthetic media or that are always parasitic
in nature are described as either obligate parasites or biotrophs.
Those capable of growing parasitically or of living saprobically on dead
organic matter are, referred to as either facultative parasites or facultative
saprobes.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
Broadly, parasites are of two types based on the way they obtain their

nutrients.
Necrotrophic parasites (Gr. nekros = death; trophein = to nourish)
Also called PERTHOTROPHS or NECROTROPHS
the parasite kills the living host cells in advance of its entry, by producing toxins
or degradative enzymes and then absorbing released nutrients and growing between
and into dead and dying cells.

BIOTROPHIC PARASITES (BIOTROPHS)


Parasite that obtains some or all of its nutrients from the living
cells or tissues of another host
Such parasite make use of special nutrient absorbing structures - haustoria
(sing, haustorium; L. haustor = drinker).
HEMIBIOTROPH
An organism that is parasitic in living tissue for some time and then
continues to live in dead tissue

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Based on host, Necrotrophs can be classified into:


1. Necrotrophs of plants
2. Necrotrophs of Animals
3. Necrotrophs of Fungi (Mycoparasites)
. Similarly Biotrophs can be classified into:
1. Biotrophs of plants
2. Biotrophs of Animals
3. Biotrophs of Fungi (Mycoparasites)
. Fungal parasites of Humans
. Few are human parasites

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Fungal parasites of Humans


Few are human parasites
Infection structures are specialised
structures formed in parasitic fungi
at the tips of germ tubes or hyphae
on the outside of the host.
The simplest pre-penetration
structures are terminal swellings on
germ tubes; called appressoria
(sing, appressorium; L.
apprimere = to press against; )

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

3. SYMBIONTS
(a) Lichens:
This is an association of fungi (mycobiont) with algae and
cyanobacteria (photobionts).
In symbiosis, the fungus gets carbohydrates from photobionts.
Photobionts receive protection and a receptive substrate for
growth from the surrounding fungus.
(b) Mycorrhizae:
This is an association of fungi with roots of higher plants.
The fungal symbiont in a mycorrhiza gets carbohydrates from
plant host, and the plant gets minerals from the fungus.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

PLANT ENDOPHYTES OR ECTOPHYTES:


These fungi are present in or on the leaves and stem of healthy
plants.
ANIMAL ENDOPHYTES OR ECTOPHYTES:
Fungi present within or on host animals, with or without causing
any damage to the animals.
Many fungi belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are
associated symbiotically with arthropods such as:
I. wood wasps,
II. ambrosia and bark beetles,
III. leaf-cutting ants and termites.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

ANIMAL ENDOPHYTES OR ECTOPHYTES:


LINKS:
http://
website.nbm-mnb.ca/mycologywebpages/NaturalHistoryOfFungi/AnimalMutual
isms.html
http://
bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/learning/resources/Mycology/Animal_Interactions/symbi
ontsCommensals/symbInteractions.shtml
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/BOT135/Lect24.htm

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

REPRODUCTION AND SPORES


Reproduction is the formation of new individuals having all the
characteristics typical of the species.
Two general types of reproduction are recognized:
i. Sexual and
ii. Asexual.

Asexual reproduction, sometimes called somatic reproduction,


does not involve karyogamy (Gr. karyon = nut + gamos =
marriage)
Karyogamy is:
a) The fusion of nuclei, and
b) Meiosis.

Specialized sex cells or sex organs are not involved.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Sexual reproduction is characterized by the union of two nuclei


followed by meiosis.
The significance of sexual reproduction is that
It results in recombination and
Formation of new genotypes.

In the true fungi it may or may not involve specialized sex cells
and sex organs.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

In the formation of reproductive organs, either sexual or asexual,


the entire thallus may be converted into one or more
reproductive structures.
So that somatic and reproductive phases do not occur together in
the same individual.
Fungi that follow this pattern are called holocarpic (Gr. holos =
whole + karpos = fruit).
In the majority of fungi, however, the reproductive organs arise
from only a portion of the thallus, while the remainder continues
its normal somatic activities.
The fungi in this category are called eucarpic (Gr. eu = good +
carpos = fruit).
The holocarpic forms are less differentiated than the eucarpic.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Typically, fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually, although


not necessarily at the same time.
In general, asexual reproduction is more important for the
colonization of the species (establishing the fungus).
WHY?
It results in the production of large numbers of individuals
It is usually repeated several times during the season

Whereas the sexual stage of many fungi may be produced only


once a year.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Asexual reproduction as the nonsexual production of specialized
reproductive cells such as spores.
A broader definition: Any method of propagation of new
individuals:
I.

Such as simple division of a unicellular organism into daughter


cells or

II. Of a multicellular thallus into a number of fragments each of


which grows into a new individual.
. This broader concept of asexual reproduction will be used here.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
In accordance with this concept, the asexual methods of
reproduction commonly found in fungi may be summarized as
follows:
(1) fragmentation of the soma, each fragment growing into a new
individual;
(2) fission of somatic cells into daughter cells;
(3) budding of somatic cells or spores, each bud producing a new
individual; and
(4) production of mitotic spores, each spore usually germinating
to form a germ tube that grows into the mycelium.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

FRAGMENTATION
Some fungi employ fragmentation of hyphae as a normal means of
propagation.
Fragmentation may occur accidentally by the tearing off of parts of
the mycelium through external forces.
Under favorable conditions such bits of mycelium will start a new in
dividual.
as in a majority of the filamentous fungi.
ARTHROSPORES
Hyphae of some species routinely break up into their component
cells that then behave as spores.
These spores are known as arthrospores (Gr. arthron = joint +
spora = seed, spore) or thallic conidia.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

ARTHROSPORES

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

CHLAMYDOSPORES
If the cells become enveloped in a thick wall before they separate
from each other or from other hyphal cells adjoining them, they
often are called chlamydospores (Gr. chlamys mantle +
spora = seed, spore).
FISSION
It is the simple splitting of a cell into two daughter cells by
constriction and
The formation of a cell wall
It is found many forms including some yeasts.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

BUDDING
Budding, involves the production of a small outgrowth (bud) from a
parent cell.
As the bud is formed, the nucleus of the parent cell divides mitotically
One daughter nucleus migrates into the bud.
The bud increases in size while still attached to the parent cell and
Eventually breaks off and forms a new individual.
Chains of buds, forming a short mycelium
Which is known as pseudomycelium
Budding takes place in the majority of yeasts
Also in many other fungi
Such as dimorphic

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

SPORES
A spore (Gr. spora = seed, spore) is a:
minute,
simple propagating unit
without an embryo that
serves in the production of new individuals.
The most common method of asexual reproduction in fungi is by
means of spores.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
SPORES

Asexual spores vary greatly in morphology.


They may be thin or thick walled

Color
Hyaline (Gr. hyalinos made of glass, transparent, i.e., colorless)
Green,
Yellow,
Orange,
Red
Brown
Black

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
Size

Minute to large;

Shape
Globose
Oval,
Oblong,
Needle-shaped
Helical

Number Of Cells
From one to many
i.e. unicellular to multicellular

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Some develop directly from simple hyphae while others arise


from elaborate structures
Spores may be borne in or on specialized sporophores
that range from the
microscopic to
those exceeding several feet in diameter and sometimes
weighing many pounds.
There is an infinite variety of spores and the ways in which they
are formed.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Some fungi produce only one type of spore


Others produce as many as four types.
Fungal spores produced asexually are either borne in sporangia
(sing, sporangium; Gr. spora = seed, spore + angeion = vessel)
Such spores are then called sporangiospores
OR Spores are produced at the tips or sides of hyphae in various
ways
They are then called conidia (sing, coni- dium; Gr. konis =
dust+-idion, dimin. suffix).

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
Sporangium

A sporangium is a saclike structure


Its entire contents are converted through cleavage into one or more,
usually many, spores.
The sporangiospores of nearly all the true fungi are nonmotile.
They are called aplanospores (Gr. a = not + planetes = wanderer +
spora = seed, spore).
However, motile sporangiospores called zoospores (Gr. zoon = animal
+ spora = seed, spore) are produced in one phylum of true fungi
Called Chytridiomycota.
These spores usually are equipped with a single whiplash flagellum.
Multiflagellate zoospores are produced in one small group of true fungi.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Sexual reproduction in fungi, involves the union of two
compatible nuclei.
Like in other living organisms
Consists of three distinct phases.
1. Plasmogamy
2. Karyogamy
3. Meiosis

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Plasmogamy (Gr. plasma = a molded object, i.e., a being + gamos
marriage, union)
A union of two protoplasts or fusion of two cells
It brings the nuclei close together within the same cell.
Karyogamy
The fusion of the two nuclei is
It is the second phase of sexual reproduction.
Karyogamy follows plasmogamy almost immediately in some species
In others these two events are separated in time and space
Plasmogamy results in a binucleate cell containing one nucleus from
each parent.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

Such a pair of nuclei is called a dikaryon.


These two nuclei may not fuse until later.
The dikaryotic condition may be perpetuated from cell to cell
This is done by
i.

the simultaneous division (conjugate division) of the two closely


associated nuclei and

ii. by the separation of the resulting sister nuclei into the two daughter
cells.

. Nuclear fusion finally takes place.


. Followed by meiosis (Gr. meiosis reduction)
. Which again reduces the number of chromosomes.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

sexual reproduction in most of the fungi involves the formation of


specialized spores.

1. Oospores,
2. Zygospores,
3. Ascospores, and
4. Basidiospores.
. Almost all true fungi exist in either the haploid or the dikaryotic
condition
. The diploid phase being represented only by the zygote.
. A few Chytridiomycota species exhibit an alternation of generations
. With a haploid phase alternating with a diploid phase.
. In contrast, in Oomycota diploid nuclei occur throughout most of the life
cycle.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

On the basis of the sex, most fungi are classified into three
categories:
1. Monoecious - (Hermaphrodites): In which each thallus bears
both male and female sex organs
. That may or may not be compatible.
2. Dioecious: In which some thalli bear only male and some bear
only female sex organs. Very few dioecious fungi have been
discovered.
3. Sexually undifferentiated: Morphologically undifferentiated
male or female,
. Perhaps majority of fungi exhibit this kind of sexual process.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS

On the basis of compatibility, fungi may be:


1. Homothallic or
2. heterothallic or
3. secondary homothallic.
. Homothallic fungi:

Thallus self fertile


Reproduces sexually by itself
Without aid of another thallus,
Homothallic fungi are never dioecious.
Every individual is self fertile
Self compatible
Inbreeding leads to genetic homogeneity.

FUNGI GENERAL
CHARACTERS
Heterothallic fungi:

Every thallus is sexually self sterile


Even if monoecious
Requires aid of another compatible thallus.
Outbreeding is obligatory.

Two different types of heterothallism exist:


Morphological heterothallism
Morphologically dissimilar sexual organs are produced by different thalli
e.g. Mastigomycotina (Achlya); and

Physiological heterothallism
Which depends on the genetic factors conferring compatibility and
may lack differentiated sexual organs (Hymenomycetes - hyphal fusion)