Chapter 16

Cake Mixing and Baking

Cake Mixing Methods
HighHigh-fat or shortened cakes:  Creaming method  Two-stage method Two Flour-batter method FlourLowLow-fat or egg foamfoamtype cakes:  Sponge method  Angel food method  Chiffon method

Creaming Method
1.

2. 3.

Place the butter or shortening in the mixing bowl. With the paddle attachment beat the fat slowly. Add the sugar and cream the mixture at moderate speed. Add eggs little at a time. After each addition beat until the eggs are absorbed. Scrape down the sides of the bowl. Scale ingredients accurately Add the sifted dry ingredients, alternating with the liquids.

4. 5. 6.

TWO STAGE METHOD
1.

Scale ingredients accurately. Sift the flour, baking powder, soda, and salt into the mixing bowl and add the shortening. Mix for 2 minutes stop; scrape down bowl and mix 2 more minutes Sift the remaining dry ingredient into the bowl and add part of the water or milk. Blend at low speed 3 to 5 minutes. Combine the remaining liquids and lightly beaten eggs. With the mixer running add this mixture to

2.

3.

4.

Flour Batter Method
1.

Scale all ingredients accurately. Sift the flour and other dry ingredients, except sugar into the mixing bowl. Add fat. Blend together until light and smooth. Whip the sugar and eggs together until thick and light. Add liquid flavoring such as vanilla. Combine the flour-fat mixture and the sugar-egg mixture floursugarand mix smooth. Gradually add water or milk (if any) and mix smooth.

2.

3. 4.

5.

Chiffon Method
1. 2.

Scale all ingredients accurately. Sift the dry ingredients, including part of the sugar, onto the mixing bowl. Mixing with the paddle attachment at second speed , gradually add the oil, then the egg yolks water and flavorings. Scrape down the bowl. Whip the egg whites until they form soft peaks. Add the cream of tartar and sugar in a stream and whip to firm moist peaks. Fold the whipped egg whites into the flour-liquid mixture. flourImmediately deposit batter in ungreased center tube pans.

3.

4.

5. 6.

Angel Food Method
1. 2. 3.

Sift the flour with half the sugar. Gradually beat in sugar. Fold in the flour\sugar mixture just until flour\ is thoroughly absorbed. Scale ingredients accurately. Deposit mix in ungreased pans.

4. 5.

Sponge Method
1. 2.

Scale ingredients accurately. Combine the eggs, sugar and salt and warm to 110 degrees. With the whip attachment , beat the eggs at high speed until they are very light and thick. If any liquid is included, add it now. Either whip it in a steady stream or stir it in. Fold in the sifted flour, being careful not to deflate to foam. Immediately bake.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Causes of Curdling in Cake Batters
Using the wrong type of fat  Using ingredients that are too cold  Mixing the first stage of the procedure too quickly  Adding the liquids too quickly  Adding too much liquid 

Developing Proper Cake Texture
o Use cake flour: low gluten levels help create a fine, light product o Strictly observe all mixing times o Add flour toward the end of the creaming, sponge, and angel food mixing methods o Add flour in the first step of the two-step mixing twomethod o Always scale ingredients accurately

The Function of Cake Batter Ingredients
Tougheners: 

Tenderizers: 
 

Flour Eggs

Sugar Fats Chemical leaveners 

The Function of Cake Batter Ingredients
Moisteners:
o o o o o

Driers:
o o o o

Liquid milk Water Syrup and liquid sugars Eggs Flavorings

Flour Starches Cocoa Milk solids

GUIDELINES CAKE BALANCING

Formulas for Regular or Shortened Cakes 

The weight of the sugar should be equal to or less than the weight of the flour. The weight of eggs is equal to the weight of the fat. The weight of the eggs and liquids equal the weight of the flour.  

Formulas for hi-ratio cakes hi‡The weight of the sugar is equal or greater than the weight of the flour (110 to 160%)

‡The weight of the eggs should be greater than the fat

‡The weight of the liquid (eggs and milk) should be greater than the weight of the sugar

Scaling & Pan Preparation
1. For hi fat cakes layer pans must be greased with commercial (or at least grease and flour. 2. For sheet cakes, line the pans with greased parchment. 3. For angel food cakes and chiffon cakes baked in tube pans, do not grease the pan. 4. For sponge cake layer with little or not fat grease the bottoms but not the sides of the pans.

Cakes are done when: 

Center of top springs back when touched lightly Wooden pick inserted into center comes out clean Shortened cakes pull away slightly from the sides of the pan  

Baking and Cooling Guidelines 
Make certain ovens and shelves are level  Do not let pans touch each other  Steam- bake creamed and two stage batters if possible Steam Do not open oven or disturb cakes until they have finished rising and are partially brown.  Cakes are done when the center springs back when touched, a wooden pick inserted into center comes out clean. Or the cake shrinks slightly away from side  Cool pan and layer cakes in pan for fifteen minutes Turn out  Elevate and cool angel food and chiffon cakes upside down in their pans.

TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE
CAKES WITH A CLOSE, TIGHT GRAIN AND MOIST INTERIOR: INTERIOR:
l. Excess of liquid 2. Lack of leavening 3. A strong flour or excess of flour will result in a stiff batter that resists expansion when the gas is released 4. Excess of syrups such as corn syrup 5. Baking at high temperatures

INTERIORS OF CAKE HAVE LARGE HOLES OR TUNNELS
1. Use of ingredient suited to the method 2. Kind of flour 3. Lack of sugar

POOR TASTE AND FLAVOR
1. Quality of ingredients used (from use of rancid butter to poor fruit)

CAKE LACKS VOLUME
1. Improper mixing and uneven distribution of ingredients. 2. Excessive liquid or sugar will result in collapse or shrinkage 3. Baking at low temperature will cause cakes to lose moisture cause shrinkage and loss volume

CAKE CRUST HAVE SPOTS OR UNEVEN COLOR
1. Uneven mixing

CAKES HAVE AN OPEN GRAIN AND COARSE TEXTURE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. Weak flour or a cake flour that has not been bleached Improper mixing Cool oven Excessive use of chemical leavening agents Use of emulsifiers may lead to excess aeration Too little liquid

CAKES ARE TOUGH AND RUBBERY
Especially susceptible are cakes with blending method (Don t over mix the batter) Use of strong flour not suited for high sugar ratio cakes (Use more Sugar) Excess liquid in the form of eggs Cakes baked at higher temperature (lower oven temperature.) 

CAKES SHRINK AFTER BAKING

1. Improper baking. Baking at a higher temperature can cause cakes to be removed before they are done. 2. Too strong of flour

Domed or cracked surface
1. 2. 3. 4. batter over mixed Don t overbeat the eggs reduce the amount of sugar (if cracks) wrong type of flour or too much too little baking powder/soda or sugar oven temperature too hot.

Cake sinks in the center
1. 2. 3. 4. too much fat and or sugar or leavening not enough liquid oven temperature too low Batter over mixed

Cake falling apart
1. 2. 3. Too much baking powder/baking soda sugar or fat improper mixing oven temperature too low

Trouble Shooting for Sponge Cakes Only
Cake is tough
1. Add more sugar, 2. don t over mix the batter, 3. lower the oven temperature

Cake is heavy with a sticky layer on the bottom
1. Eggs not beaten properly 2. Fully mix the eggs with the other ingredients. 3. Add the milk and butter at room temperature not hotter

Poor Volume
1. 2. 3. 4. Avoid over mixing Use the smaller pan increase baking time use a clean mixing bowl that is free of grease.

Lumps in the cake
1. Dissolve the sugar completely 2. Sift the flour

Sticky Crust
1. Decrease the amount of sugar 2. Bake longer

Cracks in the Crust
1. Don t overbeat the eggs 2. Reduce the amount of sugar 3. Decrease oven temperature

Altitude Adjustment for High Altitude
Decrease baking soda and leavening Increase eggs and flour Decrease shortening and sugar Increase liquids Increase baking temperature Grease pans more heavily

Convenience Products 

Tremendous time savers Results are consistent Flavors artificial