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CHEMICAL WEAPONS

A chemical weapon carries agent of a chemical


substance, which is intended for use in military
operations.
Factors which determine the suitability of a
chemical substance for use in military operations
are :
Easy to manufacture in bulk.
Easy to store.
Stable to storage.
Physical state at the temperature at which it is
likely to be used.

CLASSIFICATION
Lethal Agents. Designed to kill, but non
lethal doses may incapacitate.
Damaging Agents. Primarily designed to
cause either short or long term damage to
men but may cause death.
Incapacitating Agents. Primarily designed
to cause mental or physical incapacitation,
usually only temporary.

CHEMICAL PROPERTY OF AGENTS


Persistent. Agents which are used to
contaminate surfaces, but which may give
off toxic vapour. In addition to contact
hazard, there will be both a local and
downwind vapour hazard.

Non Persistent. Agents designed to


contaminate the air, they disperse fairly and
quickly. There will be usually both local
and downwind hazard.

FACTORS FOR EFFECTIVENESS


The physical characteristics of the agent.

The amount of agent delivered, its ground


density, and its physical state.
The delivery system used.
The weather and state of ground in the
target area at the time of the attack and
afterwards.

TYPES OF AGENTS

Nerve Agents.

Blood Agents.
Choking Agents.
Toxins Agents.
Blistering Agents.
Incapacitating Agents.

EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AGENTS


Likely symptoms are :
Dimness of vision.
Irritation of the eyes.
Sudden headaches.
Tightness of chest.
Running nose.
Intense salivation.

ROUTES OF ENTRY INTO


HUMAN BODIES

Nerve Agents.
Inhalation Breathing.
Absorption Through eyes, skin, contact etc.
Ingestion With food.

Blood Agents - Must be inhaled for effectiveness.


Choking Agents - Has to be inhaled.
Blister Agents Same as nerve agents.
Incapacitating Agents Through inhalation.

METHODS OF DELIVERY
Bursting Munitions. Shells, bombs,
bomb lets, missiles, rockets, and chemical
mines.
Spray Equipments. Mounted on aircraft or

missiles.

NBC DEFENCE MESURES


Pre Attk Precautions
Trg.
NBC Equipt.
Op Procedure for NBC Environment.
Tac Protection (conceal/dispersion).
Medical Precaution.

Contd

Attak Protection Measures


Detection of NBC Attk.
Alarm for NBC Threat.

Post Attk Counter Measures.


Reporting NBC Wpn Effect.
Measures to Control Damage.
Contamination Control.
Med Treatment to NBC Casualties.

NBC WARNING SIGNS


Ser

Nature of
Contamination

Primary
Colour

Secondary
Colour

Example of Sign Colour

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Nuclear

White

Black
ATOM

Biological

Blue

Red

20cm

28 cm

BIO

Chemical

Yellow

Red

90

GAS

20cm