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You are on page 1of 19

MEDIA

Christian Paolo S. Asequia

November 12, 2015

Flow of Discussion

Definitions

Flow

Regime

Darcys Law and Kozeny-Carman

Equations

Carman and Ergun Correlations

Concentrations by mass and volume

Summary

A porous

mediumor

is a

material

Definitions

Voidage

Bed

containing pores (voids) typically

Interstitial

Velocity,

U, is

porosity

is

the

void

filled with a fluid.

the

velocity

obtained

by

Pressure

drop

is

defined

as

the

fraction

expressed

as

Porous

Medium

Fluid

flow

through

a

Superficial

velocity,

U

,

difference

in

pressure

between

flow

through

the

column

o

Fluid

Flow through

a porous

medium

volume

of

solids

in

bed

two

points

in

a

fluid

carrying

medium

describes

the

the

between

particles.

It

is

Superficial

Velocity

is

the

velocity

in

which

divided

by

the

total

bed

network.

The

resistance

of

fluid

Interstitial

manner

in

which

the

Velocity

related

to

the

Superficial

the

medium

is

assumed

flow

gives

rise

to

the

PRESSURE

volume.

Porosity/Voidage

fluid

that

flows

in

a

Velocity

through

the

void

DROP

(P)

in

the

fluid.

empty.

Pressure Drop

/ Pressure Difference

fraction.

media

behaves.

Definitions

Flow Regimes

Reynolds

Modified

Number

Reynolds Number

Flow Regimes

Modified

Reynolds Number

Used to determine the flow regime of

the fluid within the porous medium.

Interstitial velocity is considered. Hence

velocity is U which can be related to

superficial through the void fraction.

Characteristic linear dimension was

deduced by Kozeny and is the volume

open to the fluid flow divided by the

surface area over which it must flow.

Flow Regimes

Modified

Reynolds Number

Conventionally applied threshold to

indicate significant turbulence is 2.

Density term is the fluid density

Sv = 6/x (for a single spherical

particle)

specific surface area per unit

volume

the Kozeny-Carman Equation

Darcys

Law

Darcys Law states that the flow is

The basic law governing the flow

proportional to the pressure drop and

of fluids through porous media.

inversely proportional to viscosity.

Formulated by Henry Darcy on

the basis of his experiments on

vertical water filtration through

sand beds.

the Kozeny-Carman Equation

Kozeny-Carman

Equation:

Equation is derived from the hagenpoiseuille equation for a laminar flow of a fluid in

awhere

circular channel.

Only applies

laminar

flows for

porous medium

diameter

for to

the

particle

distribution.

(<2)

close to 5 however, it is not universally true.

Friction Factor

Friction

Factor, f

surface unit area divided by the product of

density and velocity head.

flow regions in porous media was

deduced by Carman.

Friction Factor

Friction Factor

Force

Balance

at

the

particle

surface:

Let R = shear stress or drag force per unit area

DragForce = R*particle surface area

surface area of particle = Sv *(1-)*L*A

Pressure Drop on fluid = P

Force by fluid = P*A*

Combining:

Friction Factor

Rearranging

Expanding

The

Correlations

Carman

Correlation is generally

used for solid objects forming a bed:

Ergun

hollow objects such as packing rings:

volume

If

a

sample

resulted

in

a

concentration by mass, Cw and the

total mass is M, then the volumes

can be calculated if the densities of

the solid and fluid are known

through the equation:

volume

Dividing

the volume of solids gives rise to the

equation:

SUMMARY

Under

Modified

Reynolds Number:

SUMMARY

For

bed)

Example Problem

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