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CULTURE, IDENTITY AND

SOCIALIZATION

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY

SOCIOLOGY IS THE STUDY


OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR IN
SOCIETY
There are two groups of sociologists: structuralists (Functionalists,
Marxist and Feminists) and interpretivist/social action perspectives
(Max Weber, Interactionists)

THE FUNCTIONALISTS SUCH AS DURKHEIM, PARSONS AND MERTON ARGUE THAT THE INSTITUTIONS SUCH AS THE
FAMILY, RELIGION, EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM HAVE PARTICULAR FUNCTION TO PLAY IN SOCIETY. FOR EXAMPLE, FAMILY
HAS THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF SOCIALISATION.
THE MARXISTS ARGUES THAT SOCIETY IS GOVERNED BY THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM. IN SOCIETY, THERE ARE TWO
MAIN SOCIAL CLASSES: UPPER CLASS (BOURGEOISIE) AND WORKING CLASS (PROLETARIAT). THE UPPER CLASS
OWNS ALL THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION (LAND, CAPITAL AND ENTERPRISE). THE WORKING CLASS HAS ONLY THEIR
LABOUR TO SELL. THERE IS A CONFLICT (DIALECTIC MATERIALISM) THAT OCCURS BETWEEN THESE TWO CLASSES
TO OWN THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION THAT LEADS TO THE OVERTHROW OF CAPITALISM BY THE WORKING CLASS
TO SET UP COMMUNISM. IN A COMMUNIST SOCIETY, THERE WILL NO CLASS OR PRIVATE PROPERTY.
MAX WEBER CRITICISES KARL MARX FOR IGNORING THE MIDDLE CLASS. THE MIDDLE CLASS IS AN INTERMEDIATE
CLASS BETWEEN THE UPPER CLASS AND THE WORKING CLASS. THEY HAVE NO PROPERTY AS THE UPPER CLASS BUT
DO HAVE THE MARKET SITUATION (QUALIFICATION: ACCA). THE STATUS OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN SOCIETY IS NOT ONLY
DETERMINED BY CLASS BUT ALSO BY THE ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS AND RACE.
INTERACTIONIST BELIEVES THAT THE BEHAVIOUR OF AN INDIVIDUAL IS BUILT UP BY THE INTERACTION BETWEEN
INDIVIDUALS. LABELLING AS PUT FORWARD BY ROSENTHAL AND JACOBSON IS AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN
UNDERSTANDING ON HOW TEACHER TAGS STUDENTS. THIS LABELLING HAS A DIRECT EFFECT OF THE LEVEL OF
SUCCESS OR FAILURE OF A STUDENT.

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION
Social constructions of individual identity: how the society build up the

social identity of a member in society. It tries to explain how behaviour is


influenced by society.

Social identity: individuals perception of themselves, based partly on ideas

about how others see them (self-image, self-concept).

Culture is the way of life of individual in society.


Components of culture: norms, values, status, roles.

CONFORMITY AND NON-CONFORMITY

Mainstream culture: society in general.


Conformity: it is when an individual complies with the rules and regulation of
society. Matching attitudes and behaviour of those of the group and society.
Non-conformity: it is when an individual or group of individuals does not follow and
abide to the rules and regulations of society.
Coercion (force): An individual is coerced (forced) by society to follow its rules and
regulations.

Social Control
Social control is used to make the individual to comply with the rules and
regulations of society. There are two types of social control: formal and
informal.
The agencies of formal social control: police, legal system.
The agencies of informal social control: family, religion and peer group.
There are rewards and punishments used to make individual to the rules,
norms and values of society.
Sub-cultures are usually non-conformists (Youth-subculture, religious subcultures). (Teddy Boy)
Social order: the ways in which societies and their institutions remain stable
over time.

Theories on social order and social


control
Functionalists argue that social control is good and
beneficial for society as it enables stability and social
order to take place. Social order is the result of value
consensus.
The Marxist argues that the agencies of social control
are by the upper class to oppress the working class in
society. Social order is the result of the false class
consciousness.
The interactionist believes that social order is the result
of interaction between individuals.

Diversity and cultural variation


Difference between race and ethnicity
Diversity means that society is divided in many groups such as ethnic groups.
Multiculturalism is when there are many ethnic groups in society (For e.g.
Mauritius).
Cultural relativism: one individual uses the values present in his culture to
evaluate other cultures. For instance, a French man will use Frenchs values
to evaluate the Britishs culture. Considering all cultures from a Western point
of view.
Race discrimination

IS GLOBALISATION
CREATING A GLOBAL
CULTURE?

Globalisation means that information, communication and travel have been

compressed. It is believed that the world has become a global village.


Information technology has helped in creating a global culture.

Some sociologists argue the globalisation has makes all the culture all over

the world to become one. It is called a global culture. Some say that the
model of the global model is based western ones (American). This process
of American modelling is called Westernisation.

It can be said that multiculturalism is the product of globalisation.

AGE AS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION


TRIBAL SOCIETY BAKUA TRIBES (CHILDHOOD TO ADULTHOOD)
PRE-INDUSTRIALISED SOCIETY (CHILDHOOD/LITTLE ADULT/ ADULTHOOD)
INDUSTRIALISED SOCIETY/MODERN SOCIETY (CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE
(PUBERTY), YOUNG ADULT, ADULTHOOD, AND OLD AGE).
IN INDUSTRIALISED SOCIETY, AGE IS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION (THAT IS,
BUILD UP BY SOCIETY AND LAW {E.G.: 18 YEARS OLD, ID CARD)

SOCIALISATION
Definition of socialisation.
Primary and secondary socialisation
Agencies of primary and secondary socialisation.
Nature (Biological, Instinct, biological inherited characteristics like
the bees)
Nurture (Socialisation process)

Social identity is influenced by:


1. Role : the patterns of behaviour expected of someone because of his
status in society
2. Age: the biological age of an individual
3. Ethnic group: the cultural characteristic of a group in society which are
different from the mainstream culture.
4. Class: the occupation hold by an individual in society.
5. Gender : feminine and masculine