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RADIO ACCESS NETWORK

ARCHITECTURE

5.1 System Architecture
5.2 UTRAN Architecture
5.3 General Protocol Model for UTRAN Terrestrial
Interfaces
5.4 Iu, The UTRAN–CN Interface
5.5 UTRAN Internal Interfaces
5.6 UTRAN Enhancements and Evolution
5.7 UTRAN CN Architecture and Evolution

5.1 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

Functional network elements
 User

Equipment (UE)

interfaces with user and radio interface

 Radio

Access Network (RAN, UMTS Terrestrial RAN
= UTRAN)

handles all radio-related functionality

 Core

Network

switches and routes calls and data connections
to external networks

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such as ISDN. PSTN. PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network)  operated by a single operator  distinguished from each other with unique identities  operational either on their own or together with other sub-networks  connected to other PLMNs as well as to other types of network. the Internet. etc. .

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 UE consists of two parts  Mobile  Equipment (ME) the radio terminal used for radio communication over Uu interface  UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) a smartcard that holds the subscriber identity  performs authentication algorithms  stores authentication and encryption keys  some subscription information that is needed at the terminal  .

g.. UTRAN consists of two elements  Node B converts data flow between Iub and Uu interfaces  participates in radio resource management   Radio Network Controller (RNC) owns and controls radio resources in its domain  the service access point (SAP) for all services that UTRAN provides the CN  e. management of connections to UE  .

 Main elements of CN a) b) c) d) e) HLR (Home Location Register) MSC/VLR (Mobile Services Switching Centre/Visitor Location Register) GMSC (Gateway MSC) SGSN (Serving GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Support Node) GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) .

g. e..(a) HLR (Home Location Register) a database located in user’s home system that stores the master copy of user’s service profile  service profile consists of. information on allowed services. forbidden roaming areas  supplementary service information such as status of call forwarding and the call forwarding number  .

 it is created when a new user subscribes to the system. and remains stored as long as the subscription is active  for the purpose of routing incoming transactions to UE (e.g. calls or short messages)  HLR also stores the UE location on the level of MSC/VLR and/or SGSN .

as well as more precise information on the UE’s location within the serving system .(b) MSC/VLR (Mobile Services Switching Centre/Visitor Location Register) the switch (MSC) and database (VLR) that serve the UE in its current location for Circuit Switched (CS) services ◦ the part of the network that is accessed via MSC/VLR is often referred to as CS domain ◦ MSC ◦  ◦ used to switch CS transactions VLR  holds a copy of the visiting user’s service profile.

(c) GMSC (Gateway MSC)  the switch at the point where UMTS PLMN is connected to external CS networks  all incoming and outgoing CS connections go through GMSC .

(d) SGSN (Serving GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Support Node)  functionality is similar to that of MSC/VLR but is typically used for Packet Switched (PS) services  the part of the network that is accessed via SGSN is often referred to as PS domain (e) GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node)  functionality is close to that of GMSC but is in relation to PS services .

 External networks can be divided into two groups  CS networks provide circuit-switched connections. like the existing telephony service  ISDN and PSTN are examples of CS networks   PS networks provide connections for packet data services  Internet is one example of a PS network  .

Main open interfaces
 Cu

interface

the electrical interface between USIM smartcard
and ME

 Uu

interface

the WCDMA radio interface
 the interface through which UE accesses the fixed
part of the system
 the most important open interface in UMTS

 Iu

interface

connects UTRAN to CN

 Iur

allows soft handover between RNCs

 Iub

interface

interface

connects a Node B and an RNC

5.2 UTRAN ARCHITECTURE
5.2.1 Radio Network Controller
5.2.2 Node B (Base Station)

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 UTRAN  consists  RNS a of one or more Radio Network Sub-systems (RNS) subnetwork within UTRAN  consists of one Radio Network Controller (RNC) and one or more Node Bs .

  RNCs  may be connected to each other via Iur interface  RNCs and Node Bs are connected with Iub interface Main characteristics of UTRAN  support of UTRA and all related functionality  support soft handover and WCDMA-specific Radio Resource Management algorithms  use of ATM transport as the main transport mechanism in UTRAN  use of IP-based transport as the alternative transport mechanism in UTRAN from Release 5 onwards .

5.2.1 RADIO NETWORK CONTROLLER  RNC (Radio Network Controller)  the network element responsible for radio resources control of UTRAN  it interfaces CN (normally to one MSC and one SGSN)  terminates RRC (Radio Resource Control) protocol that defines the messages and procedures between mobile and UTRAN  it logically corresponds to the GSM BSC .

etc. cell updates.註: RADIO RESOURCE CONTROL  Radio Resource Control (RRC) messages  the major part of the control signaling between UE and UTRAN  carry all parameters required to set up. handovers. modify and release Layer 2 and Layer 1 protocol entities  The mobility of user equipment in the connected mode is controlled by RRC signaling  measurements. .

3GPP BEARERS FOR SUPPORTING PACKET-SWITCHED SERVICES UTRAN CN .

TRAFFIC BEARERS STRUCTURE SUPPORTING PACKET-SWITCHED SERVICES  3GPP Bearer a dedicated path between mobile and its serving GGSN  for a mobile to send or receive packets over a 3GPP PS CN  a 3GPP Bearer in a UMTS network would be a UMTS Bearer .

 Constructed by concatenating Radio Access Bearer (RAB)  connects a mobile over a RAN to the edge of CN (i. a SGSN)  CN Bearer  carries user traffic between the edge of CN and a GGSN  .e..

SIGNALING AND TRAFFIC CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MOBILE AND SGSN .

g. the RNC in UTRAN)  Iu Signaling Bearer  between RAN and SGSN Signaling and traffic connections between mobile and SGSN  Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection  Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) connection ..  The signaling connection between mobile and SGSN is constructed by concatenating  Signaling Radio Bearer  between mobile and RAN (e.

 Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection  includes Signaling Radio Bearers and Traffic Radio Bearers for the same mobile  used to establish. and release Radio Bearers  a mobile will use a common RRC connection to carry signaling and user traffic for both PS and CS services . maintain.

modify. change. and release all these Iu Bearers . maintain. Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) connection  includes Iu Signaling Bearers and Iu Traffic Bearers for the same mobile  used to establish.

5.1 LOGICAL ROLE OF THE RNC The RNC controlling one Node B is indicated as the Controlling RNC (CRNC) of Node B  Controlling RNC   responsible for load and congestion control of its own cells  executes admission control for new radio links .1.2.

the RNCs involved have two separate logical roles  Serving RNC (SRNC)  Drift RNC (DRNC) . In case one mobile–UTRAN connection uses resources from more than one RNS (due to handover).

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 Serving RNC  SRNC for one mobile is the RNC that terminates both the Iu link for the transport of user data and the corresponding RANAP (RAN Application Part) signaling to/from the core network  SRNC also terminates the Radio Resource Control Signaling. that is the signaling protocol between the UE and UTRAN  it performs L2 processing of the data to/from the radio interface .

 basic Radio Resource Management operations are executed in SRNC  map Radio Access Bearer (RAB) parameters into air interface transport channel parameters  handover decision  outer loop power control  one UE connected to UTRAN has one and only one SRNC .

that controls cells used by the mobile  DRNC does not perform L2 processing of the user plane data. other than the SRNC. but routes the data transparently between Iub and Iur interfaces  one UE may have zero. Drift RNC  DRNC is any RNC. one or more DRNCs .

 channel coding and interleaving  rate adaptation  spreading  also performs some basic Radio Resource Management operations. e. e.5.g.  inner loop power control ◦  It logically corresponds to the GSM Base Station .g..2 NODE B (BASE STATION)  Main function of Node B perform the air interface L1 processing.2.

註: INTERLEAVING  The transmission of pulses from two or more digital sources in time-division sequence over a single path .

3.5.1 General 5.3 Vertical Planes .3.3.2 Horizontal Layers 5.3 GENERAL PROTOCOL MODEL FOR UTRAN TERRESTRIAL INTERFACES 5.

5.3.1 GENERAL

The general protocol model for UTRAN
terrestrial interfaces
 the

layers and planes are logically independent of
each other
 parts of the protocol structure may be changed in the
future while other parts remain intact

5.3.2 HORIZONTAL LAYERS

The protocol structure consists of two main layers
 Radio

network layer
 Transport network layer

5.3.3 VERTICAL PLANES
5.3.3.1 Control Plane
5.3.3.2 User Plane
5.3.3.3 Transport Network Control Plane
5.3.3.4 Transport Network User Plane

5.3.3.1 CONTROL PLANE

Control Plane
 used for all UMTS-specific control signaling
 includes two parts
 application protocol
 RANAP (RAN application part) in Iu
 RNSAP (RNS application part) in Iur
 NBAP (Node B application part) in Iub
 signaling bearer
 transport the application protocol messages

Application protocol is used for
 setting

up bearers to UE, i.e.
 radio access bearer in Iu
 radio link in Iur and Iub

3.2 USER PLANE  User Plane  transport all information sent and received by the user.3. such as  coded voice in a voice call  packets in an Internet connection  includes two parts  data stream(s)  data bearer(s) for data stream(s) .5.

3.3 TRANSPORT NETWORK CONTROL PLANE Used for all control signaling within transport layer  Does not include any radio network layer information  Includes ALCAP (Access Link Control Application Part) protocol used to set up the transport bearers (data bearer) for user plane  .5.3.

Includes signaling bearer needed for ALCAP  Transport network control plane   acts between control plane and user plane  makes it possible for application protocol in radio network control plane to be completely independent of the technology selected for data bearer in user plane .

3.3.4 TRANSPORT NETWORK USER PLANE  Transport Network User Plane  data bearer(s) in user plane  signaling bearer(s) for application protocol .5.

3 RANAP Protocol 5.5 Protocol Structure of Iu BC. and the SABP Protocol .4 IU.4 Iu User Plane Protocol 5.2 Protocol Structure for Iu PS 5.5.1 Protocol Structure for Iu CS 5.4.4. THE UTRAN–CN INTERFACE 5.4.4.4.

 Iu interface  an open interface that divides the system into radiospecific UTRAN and CN  handles switching. routing and service control .

 Iu can have two main different instances and one additional instance  Iu CS  connect UTRAN to Circuit Switched (CS) CN  Iu PS  connect UTRAN to Packet Switched (PS) CN  Iu BC (Broadcast)  support Cell Broadcast Services  connect UTRAN to the Broadcast domain of CN .

4.1.4.5.1 PROTOCOL STRUCTURE FOR IU CS 5.1 Iu CS Control Plane Protocol Stack 5.1.4.1.2 Iu CS Transport Network Control Plane Protocol Stack 5.3 Iu CS User Plane Protocol Stack .4.

 The following figure  depicts the Iu CS overall protocol structure  the three planes in the Iu interface share a common ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) transport  physical layer is the interface to physical medium  optical fiber  radio link  copper cable .

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4.1.1 Iu CS CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOL STACK Control Plane protocol stack consists of RANAP. on top of Broadband (BB) SS7 (Signaling System #7) protocols  The applicable layers are  Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)  Message Transfer Part (MTP3-b)  SAAL-NNI (Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer for Network to Network Interfaces)  .5.

註: SS7  MTP (Message Transfer Part ,訊息轉送部 ) 的第一層為信號數據鏈路層 (Signaling Data Link Level) 又稱為實體層 (Physical Level)  SS7  定義信號鏈路之實體、電氣與功能,以提供實體 鏈路收送 SS7 信號  SS7  的第二層為信號鏈路層 (Signaling Link Level) 確保 SS7 信號訊息在實體層上收送的可靠度 的第三層為信號網路層 (Signaling Network Level)  SS7   處理信號訊息及管理信號網路 MTP3-b  提供訊息繞送、識別,通訊裝置間的訊號鏈結管理、分 享與轉換 .

 SCCP :協助 ISUP 做端對端之交換  供 ISDN-UP (ISUP) 建立端對端的信號接續 (Signaling Connection)  供網管、維護中心與各交換局間 ( 有 SP 功能者 ) 建立信 號接續  供將來用戶 (User)( 如帳務中心 ) 與各交換局 (SP 點 ) 間 建立信號接續,可直接傳送帳務資料,而不用再運送磁 帶  供將來其他用戶部 (User Part) 建立信號接續使用 .

 TCAP  交易能力 (Transaction Capabilities ; TC) 或稱交易能 力應用部 (Transaction Capabilities Application Part ; TCAP)  在 SS7 網路中是屬於應用層 (Application Layer) 中的 一個應用服務元件 (Application Service Element ; ASE) .

 目的 提供 SS7 網路中之信號節點對信號節點間非電路接續 相關訊息的傳送  為它們之間的各種應用提供一般性服務  例如  交換機與交換機間非電路接續相關訊息的交換  交換機對網路服務中心資料庫作號碼翻譯 ( 例如 080 服務號碼 ) 皆可由 TCAP 所提供的服務來達成  .

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   SAAL-NNI is further divided into  Service Specific Coordination Function (SSCF)  Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP)  ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL) layers SSCF and SSCOP layers  designed for signaling transport in ATM networks  take care of signaling connection management AAL5 is used for segmenting the data to ATM cells .

註:   SSCF (Service Specific Coordination Function)  為特定服務協調功能  包括 UNI (User-to-Network Interface) 與 NNI (Network-to-Network Interface)  負責連線管理 (connection management) 與鏈結狀 態 (link status) 等管理 SSCOP (Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol)  為特定服務連結導向通訊協定,提供可靠的訊號傳輸服 務  包括流量控制、重送機制、連線控制與錯誤偵測等  透過 SSCOP 傳送資料,如發生資料內容錯誤,可透過 重送機制來修正錯誤;也提供上層通訊協定可靠的傳輸 服務 .

註: ATM IN BRIEF .

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註: AAL2 AND AAL5 Above the ATM layer we usually find an ATM adaptation layer (AAL)  AAL   process the data from higher layers for ATM transmission  segment the data into 48-byte chunks and reassemble the original data frames on the receiving side .

and 5)  AAL0  no adaptation is needed  the other adaptation layers have different properties based on three parameters real-time requirements  constant or variable bit rate  connection-oriented or connectionless data transfer  . Five different AALs (0. 2. 1. 3/4.

 Iu interface uses two AALs  AAL2 主要特色為需要建立連線 (connection-oriented services) 、即時傳輸 (real-time data streams) 及 非固定的傳輸速率 (variable bit rate , VBR) ,適合 用來傳送經過壓縮的影音資料  每個經過壓縮的影音資料傳輸速率並不固定,會隨著 每個畫面的複雜度不同而有所改變,此類服務需要即 時性傳輸,適用於 AAL2 的傳輸服務  AAL5  主要的特色為無需建立連線、非即時傳輸以及非固定 的傳輸速率  .

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1 [AAL2 Signaling Transport Converter for MTP3b])  BB SS7 are those described above without SCCP layer .5.2150.2 IU CS TRANSPORT NETWORK CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOL STACK  Transport Network Control Plane protocol stack consists of  Signaling Protocol on top of BB SS7 protocols for setting up  AAL2 connections (Q.2630.4.aal2 CS1])  adaptation layer (Q.1 [Q.1.

1.3 IU CS USER PLANE PROTOCOL STACK A dedicated AAL2 connection is reserved for each individual CS service  Iu User Plane Protocol residing directly on top of AAL2  .4.5.

3 Iu PS User Plane Protocol Stack .4.2 PROTOCOL STRUCTURE FOR IU PS 5.5.2.2 Iu PS Transport Network Control Plane Protocol Stack 5.4.1 Iu PS Control Plane Protocol Stack 5.2.4.2.4.

 The following figure  depicts Iu PS protocol structure  a common ATM transport is applied for both User Plane and Control Plane  the physical layer is as specified for Iu CS .

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1 IU PS CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOL STACK  Control Plane protocol stack consists of  RANAP  signaling bearers  BB SS7-based signaling bearer  an alternative IP-based signaling bearer  SCCP layer is used for both bearer .5.2.4.

  IP-based signaling bearer consists of  M3UA (SS7 MTP3 – User Adaptation Layer)  SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol)  designed for signaling transport in the Internet  ensure reliable. in-sequence transport of messages with congestion control  IP (Internet Protocol) AAL5 (common to both alternatives) .

註:   SCTP (RFC 2960)  提供可靠的傳輸服務,主要存在於 IuPS 介面  運作於完整的 IP 網路環境中,並可 適用於 IPv4 與 IPv6  提供流量控制、重送機制,以供上 層 M3UA 一個穩定可靠的傳輸介面 M3UA  基於 SCTP ,提供上層 SCCP 訊號 傳送機制 .

  SCCP  原本以 MTP3 作為它下層的通訊協 定  為順利透過 IP 或 ATM 等通訊協定, 在其下層提供一個類似 MTP3 的通 訊協定,以便順利運作在這些通訊協 定上 RANAP  本身並無處理錯誤能力  它假設所有送出的訊息都會被正確接 收,即其下層通訊協定 (Transport Network Layer) 需有處理錯誤能力  如 SSCOP 與 SCTP 具有錯誤偵測與 資料重送機制 .

2 IU PS TRANSPORT NETWORK CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOL STACK Transport Network Control Plane is not applied to Iu PS  Setting up of GTP tunnel   requires an identifier for the tunnel and IP addresses for both directions  these are already included in RANAP RAB Assignment messages .2.4.5.

5.2.3 IU PS USER PLANE PROTOCOL STACK  Iu PS User Plane  multiple packet data flows are multiplexed on one or several AAL5 PVCs (Permanent Virtual Circuit)  GTP-U (User Plane part of GPRS Tunneling Protocol) is the multiplexing layer that provides identities for individual packet data flow  each flow uses UDP connectionless transport and IP addressing .4.

4.5.3 RANAP PROTOCOL  RANAP  defines interactions between RNS and CN  the signaling protocol in Iu that contains all the control information specified for Radio Network Layer  implemented by various RANAP Elementary Procedures (EP)  each RANAP function may require execution of one or more EPs .

 three classes of EP class 1 EP  request and response (failure or success)  class 2 EP  request without response  class 3 EP  request and possibility for one or more responses  .

 RANAP functions  relocation  RAB (Radio Access Bearer) management  Iu release  report unsuccessfully transmitted data  common ID management  paging .

 management of tracing  UE–CN signaling transfer  security mode control  management of overload  reset  location reporting .

RANAP FUNCTION- Relocation : handles both SRNS relocation and hard handover (including inter-system case to/from GSM)  SRNS relocation the serving RNS functionality is relocated from one RNS to another without changing the radio resources and without interrupting the user data flow  prerequisite : all Radio Links are already in the same DRNC that is the target for the relocation  .

 Inter-RNS hard handover relocate the serving RNS functionality from one RNS to another and to change the radio resources correspondingly by a hard handover in Uu interface  prerequisite : UE is at the border of the source and target cells  .

RANAP FUNCTION-  RAB (Radio Access Bearer) management : combines all RAB handling  RAB set-up  modification of the characteristics of an existing RAB  clearing an existing RAB Iu release  releases all resources (Signaling link and U-Plane) from a given instance of Iu related to the specified UE .

RANAP FUNCTION- Reporting unsuccessfully transmitted data  allows CN to update its charging records with information from UTRAN if part of the data sent was not successfully sent to UE  Common ID management  the permanent identification of the UE is sent from CN to UTRAN to allow paging coordination from possibly two different CN domains .

RANAP FUNCTION- Paging  used by CN to page an idle UE for a UE terminating service request. to send the page to UE or broadcast the paging in the requested area . if one exists. such as a voice call  a paging message is sent from CN to UTRAN with the UE common identification (permanent Id) and the paging area  UTRAN will either use an existing signaling connection.

request UTRAN to start recording all activity related to a specific UE–UTRAN connection . for operation and maintenance purposes.RANAP FUNCTION- Management of tracing  CN may.

RANAP FUNCTION- UE–CN signaling transfer  transfer of the first UE message from UE to UTRAN  example  a response to paging  a request of a UE-originated call  a registration to a new area  it also initiates the signaling connection for Iu  direct transfer  used for carrying all consecutive signaling messages over the Iu signaling connection in both uplink and downlink directions .

RANAP FUNCTION- Security mode control  used to set the ciphering or integrity checking on or off  when ciphering is on  the signaling and user data connections in the radio interface are encrypted with a secret key algorithm .

is added to some or all of the Radio Interface signaling messages  this ensures that the communication partner has not changed. further secured with a secret key. and the content of the information has not been altered . when integrity checking is on  an integrity checksum.

to process overload at the CN or UTRAN  a simple mechanism is applied that allows stepwise reduction of the load and its stepwise resumption [( 中斷後的 ) 重新開始 ].RANAP FUNCTION- Management of overload  control the load over Iu interface against overload due  example. triggered by a timer .

and the other end can remove all previously established connections .RANAP FUNCTION- Reset  reset the CN or the UTRAN side of Iu interface in error situations  one end of the Iu may indicate to the other end that it is recovering from a restart.

RANAP FUNCTION- Location reporting  allows CN to receive information on the location of a given UE  includes two elementary procedures  control the location reporting in RNC  send the actual report to CN .

4 IU USER PLANE PROTOCOL  Iu User Plane protocol  in the Radio Network Layer of Iu User Plane  defined to be independent of CN domain  purpose  carry user data related to RABs over Iu interface  the protocol performs either a fully transparent operation. or framing for user data segments  the protocol also performs some basic control signaling to be used for initialization and online control .5.4.

 the protocol has two modes  transparent mode  本身並不會加入任何協定檔頭,亦即上層所傳送的 通訊協定會直接加上 GTP-U 檔頭後送出, Iu FP 本 身並不加入任何資料  applied for RABs that assume fully transparent operation  support mode  所提供的傳輸協定,包含速率控制與時間限制,可 用於支援 real-time 的語音傳輸  for predefined SDU (Service Data Unit) sizes performs framing of user data into segments of predefined size .

the SDU sizes typically correspond to AMR (Adaptive Multirate Codec) speech frames. on CRC from radio interface  . for example. or the frame sizes derived from the data rate of a CS data call  control procedures for initialization and rate control are defined. and a functionality is specified for indicating the quality of the frame based.

namely with Cell Broadcast Centre  used to define Cell Broadcast information that is transmitted to mobile user via Cell Broadcast Service  e.4.5. AND THE SABP PROTOCOL  Iu BC interface  connects RNC in UTRAN with the broadcast domain of Core Network. name of city/region visualized on the mobile phone display .5 PROTOCOL STRUCTURE OF IU BC.g.

 Iu BC is a control plane only interface  the protocol structure of Iu BC is shown as follows .

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modify and remove cell broadcast messages from RNC SABP has the following functions  message handling  broadcast of new messages  amendment [ 修正 ] of existing broadcast messages  prevention of broadcasting of specific messages .  SABP (Service Area Broadcast Protocol)  provides the capability for Cell Broadcast Centre in CN to define.

 load  handling responsible for determining the loading of the broadcast channels at any particular point in time  reset  permits CBC to end broadcasting in one or more Service Areas .

2 RNC–Node B Interface and the NBAP Signaling .5.1 RNC–RNC Interface (Iur Interface) and the RNSAP Signaling 5.5.5 UTRAN INTERNAL INTERFACES 5.5.

1.1.5.1 RNC–RNC INTERFACE (IUR INTERFACE) AND THE RNSAP SIGNALLING 5.1.5.5.4 Iur4 : Support of Global Resource Management .1 Iur1 : Support of the Basic Inter-RNC Mobility 5.5.1.2 Iur2 : Support of Dedicated Channel Traffic 5.5.3 Iur3 : Support of Common Channel Traffic 5.5.

  The following figure shows the protocol stack of RNC to RNC interface (Iur interface) Iur interface provides four distinct functions  support of basic inter-RNC mobility (Iur1)  support of dedicated channel traffic (Iur2)  support of common channel traffic (Iur3)  support of global resource management (Iur4) .

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1 IUR1 : SUPPORT OF THE BASIC INTER-RNC MOBILITY  This functionality requires the basic module of RNSAP signaling  provides the functionality needed for the mobility of the user between two RNCs  does not support the exchange of any user data traffic .1.5.5.

 If this module is not implemented  the only way for a user connected to UTRAN via RNS1 to utilize a cell in RNS2 is to disconnect itself temporarily from UTRAN (release the RRC connection)  The functions offered by Iur basic module include  support of SRNC relocation  support of inter-RNC cell and UTRAN registration area update  support of inter-RNC packet paging  reporting of protocol errors .

 Since this functionality does not involve user data traffic across Iur  User Plane and Transport Network Control Plane protocols are not needed .

2 IUR2 : SUPPORT OF DEDICATED CHANNEL TRAFFIC  This functionality  requires dedicated channel module of RNSAP signaling  allows dedicated and shared channel traffic between two RNCs .1.5.5.

 This functionality requires also  User Plane Frame Protocol (FP) for dedicated and shared channel  Transport Network Control Plane protocol (Q.1 [Q.aal2 CS1]) used for the set-up of transport connections (AAL2 connections) .2630.

 Frame Protocol for dedicated channels (DCH FP) defines the structure of  the data frames carrying the user data  the control frames used to exchange measurements and control information  Frame Protocol for common channels (CCH FP) describes  the User plane procedure for the shared channel .

 The functions offered by Iur DCH module  establishment. modification and release of the dedicated and shared channel in DRNC due to handovers in dedicated channel state  set-up and release of dedicated transport connections across Iur interface  transfer of DCH Transport Blocks between SRNC and DRNC  management of the radio links in DRNS via  dedicated measurement report procedures  power setting procedures  compress mode control procedures .

5.e.5.1. RACH. FACH and CPCH) data streams across Iur interface  Note  CPCH : Common Packet CHannel  RACH : Random Access CHannel  FACH : Forward Access CHannel .3 IUR3 : SUPPORT OF COMMON CHANNEL TRAFFIC  This functionality  allows the handling of common channel (i.

1 [Q. It requires  Common Transport Channel module of RNSAP protocol  Iur Common Transport Channel Frame Protocol (CCH FP)  If signaled AAL2 connections are used  Q.aal2 CS1] signaling protocol of the Transport Network Control Plane is needed .2630.

 The functions offered by Iur common transport channel module  set-up and release of the transport connection across Iur for common channel data streams  splitting of the MAC layer between SRNC (MAC-d) and DRNC (MAC-c)  flow control between MAC-d and MAC-c .

註:  負責處理傳輸通道的 MAC 層可細分為 MAC 的三個 子層  MAC-b 負責將要廣播 (broadcast) 的邏輯通道 (logical channel) 對 應到相對的傳輸通道 (transport channel)  在 UE 都有 MAC-b 層  在 Node B 上有負責每個 cell 的 MAC-b 層  .

 MAC-d 負責管理專屬 (dedicated) 通道  在 UE 都有一個 MAC-d 層  在 SRNC 上有負責每個 UE 的 MAC-d 層  MAC-c/sh  負責處理在一般 (common) 與共享 (shared) 通道中 的資訊  在 UE 上都有 MAC-c/sh 層  在 CRNC (Controlling RNC) 上有負責一個 cell 的 MAC-c/sh 層  .

4 IUR4 : SUPPORT OF GLOBAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT This provides signaling to support enhanced radio resource management and O&M features across Iur interface  The function is considered optional  This function has been introduced in subsequent releases for the support of   common radio resource management between RNCs  advanced positioning methods  Iur optimization .5.5.1.

 The functions offered by Iur global resource module  transfer of cell information and measurements between two RNCs  transfer of positioning parameters between controller  transfer of Node B timing information between two RNCs .

5.5.2 Dedicated NBAP .5.2.2 RNC–NODE B INTERFACE AND THE NBAP SIGNALING 5.1 Common NBAP and the Logical O&M 5.5.2.

10 shows the protocol stack of RNC– Node B interface (Iub interface) . Figure 5.

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 Figure 5.11 shows the logical model of Node B seen from the controlling RNC .

Figure 5.11 Logical Model of Node B .

 Logical model of Node B includes  the logical resources provided by Node B to UTRAN (via Controlling RNC) .depicted as "cells" which include the following physical channel resources  DPCH (Dedicated Physical Channel)  PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel)  PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel)  the dedicated channels which have been established on Node B  the common transport channels that Node B provides to RNC .

 corresponds to all the dedicated resources that are necessary for a user in dedicated mode and using dedicated and/or shared channels as restricted to a given Node B . Elements of the logical model Node B Communication Contexts for dedicated and shared channels 1.

 attributes (not exhaustive)  list of Cells where dedicated and/or shared physical resources are used  list of DCH which are mapped on the dedicated physical resources for that Node B Communication Context  list of DSCH and USCH [TDD] which are used by the respective UE .

the complete DCH characteristics for each DCH. identified by its DCH-identifier  the complete Transport Channel characteristics for each DSCH and USCH. identified by its Shared Channel identifier  list of Iub DCH Data Ports  list of Iub DSCH Data ports and Iub USCH data ports  FDD – up to one Iub TFCI2 Data Port  .

the corresponding DCH and cells which are carried on this data port  for each Iub DSCH and USCH data port. etc)  . the corresponding DSCH or USCH and cells which serve that DSCH or USCH  physical layer parameters (outer loop power control.for each Iub DCH Data Port.

FACH. on request of CRNC attributes (not exhaustive)  Type (RACH. USCH [TDD]. Common Transport Channel   configured in Node B. Iub FACH Data Port for a FACH. Iub PCH Data Port for PCH  Physical parameters . Iub CPCH Data Port for a CPCH [FDD]. CPCH [FDD].2. DSCH. PCH)  Associated Iub RACH Data Port for a RACH.

Transport network logical resources 3.3.1 Node B Control Port  Functionality  exchange the signaling information for the logical O&M of Node B  the creation of Node B Communication Contexts .

the configuration of the common transport channels that Node B provides in a given cell PCH and BCH control information between the RNC and the Node B  Node B Control Port corresponds to one signaling bearer between the controlling RNC and the Node B  There is one Node B Control Port per Node B .

3.2 Communication Control Port  used to send the procedures for controlling the connections between radio links and Iub DCH data ports from RNC to Node B for control of Node B Communication Contexts  one signaling bearer between RNC and Node B can at most correspond to one Communication Control Port  Node B may have multiple Communication Control Ports (one per Traffic Termination Point) .

3 Traffic Termination Point  represents DCH. DSCH and USCH [TDD] data streams belonging to one or more Node B Communication Contexts (UE contexts).3. which are controlled via one Communication Control Port .

9 Iub DSCH Data Port 3.4 Iub RACH Data Port 3.7 Iub PCH Data Port 3.6 Iub FACH Data Port 3.8 Iub FDD TFCI2 Data Port 3.5 Iub CPCH Data Port [FDD] 3.11 Iub DCH Data Port .10 Iub TDD USCH Data Port 3.3.

2.5.5. Node B Application Part) is divided into two essential components  common  NBAP defines the signaling procedures across the common signaling link  dedicated  NBAP used in the dedicated signaling link .1 COMMON NBAP AND THE LOGICAL O&M  Iub interface signaling (NBAP.

1 [Q.2630.  User Plane Iub frame protocols define  the structures of the frames  the basic inband control procedures for every type of transport channel (i.aal2 CS1] signaling  used for dynamic management of AAL2 connections used in User Plane .e. for every type of data port of the model) Q.

 Common NBAP (C-NBAP) procedures  used for the signaling that is not related to one specific UE context already existing in Node B  defines all the procedures for the logical O&M (Operation and Maintenance) of Node B  such as configuration and fault management .

 Main functions of Common NBAP  set-up of the first radio link of one UE. and selection of the traffic termination point  cell configuration  handling of the RACH/FACH/CPCH and PCH channels  initialization and reporting of Cell or Node B specific measurement  Location Measurement Unit (LMU) control  fault management .

5.2 DEDICATED NBAP  When the RNC requests the first radio link for one UE via C-NBAP Radio Link Set-up procedure  Node B assigns a traffic termination point for the handling of this UE context  every subsequent signaling related to this mobile is exchanged with dedicated NBAP (D-NBAP) procedures across the dedicated control port of the given Traffic Termination Point .2.5.

release and reconfiguration of radio links for one UE context  handling of dedicated and shared channels  handling of softer combining  initialization and reporting of radio link specific measurement  radio link fault management . Main functions of the Dedicated NBAP  addition.

6.6.6 UTRAN ENHANCEMENTS AND EVOLUTION 5.5.1 IP Transport in UTRAN 5.4 Interworking between GERAN and UTRAN.3 Stand Alone SMLC and Iupc Interface 5.2 Iu Flex 5.6. and the Iur-g Interface .6.

 Release’99 UTRAN architecture  defines the basic set of network elements and interface protocols for the support of Release ’99 WCDMA radio interface  Enhancement of the Release’99 UTRAN architecture  support new WCDMA radio interface features to provide a more efficient. scalable and robust 3GPP system architecture  Four most significant additions to the UTRAN architecture introduced in Release 5 are described in the subsequent sections .

user plane FP frames can also be conveyed  over UDP/IP protocols on Iur/Iub  over RTP/UDP/IP protocols in Iu CS interface .1 IP TRANSPORT IN UTRAN  ATM  the transport technology used in the first release of UTRAN  IP transport  introduced  in Release 5 In addition to the initially defined option of AAL2/ATM.6.5.

5.2 IU FLEX    Release’99 architecture presented in Figure 5.3  only one MSC and one SGSN connected to RNC  i.6. only one Iu PS and Iu CS interface in the RNC Iu flex (flexible)  allows one RNC to have more than one Iu PS and Iu CS interface instances with the core Main benefits of this feature  possible load sharing between core network nodes .e.

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6.5. simply. SAS)  a new network element for handling of positioning measurements and calculation of the mobile station position  . or.3 STAND ALONE SMLC AND IUPC INTERFACE Location-based services  expected to be a very important source of revenue for mobile operators  a number of different applications are expected to be available and largely used  UTRAN architecture includes a stand alone Serving Mobile Location Centre (stand alone SMLC.

 SAS  connected to RNC via Iupc interface  Positioning Calculation Application Part (PCAP) is the L3 protocol used for RNC-SAS signaling  SAS performs the following procedures provides positioning (GPS related) data to RNC  performs the position calculation function for UE assisted GPS  .

support for other positioning methods .SAS and Iupc interface are optional elements  Iupc   the first version. supported only Assisted GPS  later versions.

but also allows a more optimized interworking between the two radio technologies .4 INTERWORKING BETWEEN GERAN AND UTRAN. AND THE IUR-G INTERFACE  Iu interface  scheduled to be part of the GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) in GERAN Release 5  allows reusing 3G Core Network also for GSM/EDGE radio interface (and frequency band).5.6.

 Effect  RNSAP basic mobility module is enhanced to allow the mobility to and from GERAN cells in the target and the source  RNSAP global module is enhanced in order to allow GERAN cells measurements to be exchanged between controllers  allows a Common Radio Resource Management (CRRM) between UTRAN and GERAN radios .

 Iur-g interface  refer to the above-mentioned set of Iur functionalities that are utilized also by GERAN .

7.7.5.1 Release’99 Core Network Elements 5.2 Release 5 Core Network and IP Multimedia Sub-system .7 UMTS CORE NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND EVOLUTION 5.

UMTS radio interface, WCDMA
a

bigger step in radio access evolution from GSM
networks

UMTS core network
 did

not experience major changes in 3GPP Release’99
specification

Release’99 structure was inherited from GSM
core network
 both

UTRAN and GERAN based radio access network
connect to the same core network

5.7.1 RELEASE ’99 CORE NETWORK
ELEMENTS

Two domains of Release’99 core network
 Circuit

Switched (CS) domain
 Packet Switched (PS) domain

The division comes from the different
requirements for data
 depending

on whether it is real time (circuit
switched) or non-real time (packet data)

Figure 5.12

 Release’99

core network
structure with both CS and
PS domains
 Registers
 HLR, VLR, EIR
 Service Control Point
(SCP)
 the link for providing a
particular service to end
user

.

 CS domain has the following elements  Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). including Visitor Location Register (VLR)  Gateway MSC (GMSC) .

to the Internet . PS domain has the following elements  Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)  covers similar functions as MSC for packet data.g. e. including VLR type functionality  Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)  connects PS core network to other networks.

the network needs various registers for proper operation  Home Location Register (HLR)  Equipment Identity Register (EIR) contains the information related to the terminal equipment  can be used to..g. In addition to the two domains. prevent a specific terminal from accessing the network  . e.

2 RELEASE 5 CORE NETWORK AND IP MULTIMEDIA SUB-SYSTEM  Release 4 included the change in core network CS domain  MSC was divided into MSC server and Media Gateway (MGW)  GMSC was divided into GMSC server and MGW  Release 5  contains the first phase of IP Multimedia Sub-system (IMS)  this will enable a standardized approach for IP-based service provision via PS domain .5.7.

13  Home Subscriber Server (HSS)  shown as an independent item  Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)  the key protocol between terminal and IMS  the basis for IMS-related signaling .  Release 6  enhance IMS to allow the provision of services similar to CS domain services from PS domain Release 5 architecture is presented in Figure 5.

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echo cancellation or speech decoding/ encoding  .MSC or GMSC server  takes care of the control functionality as MSC or GMSC..g. only the number of MGWs needs to be increased  MGW performs actual switching for user data and network interworking processing  e. respectively  user data goes via Media Gateway (MGW)  one MSC/GMCS server can control multiple MGWs  this allows better scalability of the network when data rates increase with new data services  in this case.

 IMS includes the following key elements  Media Resource Function (MRF)  controls media stream resources or mixes different media streams  Call Session Control Function (CSCF)  the first contact point to terminal in the IMS (as a proxy)  handling of session states  acting as a firewall towards other operator’s networks .

 Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) handle protocol conversions  control a service coming via CS domain and perform processing in an MGW.g. e. for echo cancellation  .