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# Power and machine

Lecture 2 and 3
Contact details: mona.moussa@asst.edu

Magnetism

etic fields are an essential element in the conversion of mechan
energy to electrical energy and vice versa

Sources of magnetic fields:

Permanent magnets

Current carrying conductors

(a) Permanent Magnets Unlike magnet poles Attract Like magnet poles Repulse agnetic lines of force that move from N to S They form closed loops .

(b) Current Carrying Conductors + Direction can be determined using the right hand grasp rule .

Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density (a) Magnetic Flux (φ) Total number of magnetic lines of force present in a magnetic field Unit…. Weber (wb) (b) Magnetic Flux Density (B) It is a measure of the concentration of the magnetic flux per unit area Unit…… Tesla B = φ/A (wb/m2) or Tesla ..

m.(c) Magnetomotive Force (Fm) In a magnetic circuit.f ) acts on the circuit Fm = N×I …… (AT) N: number of turns I: Current flowing through c (d) Reluctance (Rm) In a magnetic circuit Rm.f Rm = Fm/φ …… (AT/wb) φ Fm Rm . a magnetic flux is created when a magnetomoti (m.m. is the opposition offered by the magnetic circuit To the establishment of the magnetic flux by the m.

m) (l: length of magnetic circuit.(e) Permanence (Pm) Permanence is defined as the ability of the magnetic circuit to permit the Establishment of a magnetic field Pm = 1/Rm …… (wb/AT) (it is more convenient to use Pm in making calculations in parallel magnetic ci (f) Permeability (μ) Permeability is a measure of the ease with which a magnetic field may be Established It could be given as the permanence per unit length and cross sectional area of a magnetic field μ = Pm l /A = l/A Rm (wb / AT. A: cross sectional area of magnetic circuit. R m: R .

Note the following In electric circuits conductor materials are compared according to its Resistivity (δ). permeability is given as follows: μ = μ0 × μ r Where μr = 1 for air and non magnetic materials = (500-2500) for iron and steel μr is dimensionless .m  For magnetic materials. R = δ l/A Ω  In magnetic circuits conductor materials are compared by means of its permeability (μ).m Permeability of free space (μ0)= 4π×10-7 wb/AT. μ = Pml/A wb/AT.

(g) Magnetic field intensity (H) It is the magnetomotive force per unit length H = Fm/l (AT/m) l: length of magnetic circuit Note As Rm = Fm /φ. then Pm = φ/Fm and since μ=Pml/A Then μ = (φ×l) / (Fm×A) = B/H .

Magnetization Curves Magnetic flux (φ) is produced by passing an electric current through a coil that Creates a m.m. they are compared in terms Of unit quantities (Flux density “B” and Magnetizing force “H”) .f To have an effective comparison between materials .

B-H Curve Saturation Upper knee Linear B-H. maximum permeability Lower knee .

The B-H curve is divided into 4 regions:  Lower Knee: indicates alignment of magnetic domain whos are nearly parallel to the applied magnetic  Linear Part: movement of most domains into alignment wi applied magnetic field (BαH . μ is constant an  Upper Knee: increasing magnetizing force that must be app force the alignment of all domains with the magnetic field (B is not proportional to H and  Saturation: region where most domains have been aligne external magnetic field (no more increase of B and μ is approaching Zer .

Nickel 8.Sheet steel 2.Cast steel 4.Magnet steel 6.Magnetite .B-H Curves for different materials 1.Cast iron 7.Tungsten steel 5.Cobalt 9.Silicon steel 3.

Scaled B-H Curves for different materials .

Magnetic Circuits versus Electric Circuits Magnetomotive Force “Fm” Flux “φ” Reluctance “Rm” Electromotive Force “ Current “I” Resistance “R” .

...m.............f (Fm = NI = Hl) e....... + = H1l1 + H2l2 + H3l3 +………………….Items Magnetic Circuit Electric Circuit Driving Force m. +H .m..f (E) Produces Flux (φ = Fm/Rm) Current (I=E/R) Limited by Reluctance (Rm =l/μA) Resistance (R=δl/A) Ampere’s circuital law The algebraic sum of the magnetomotive force drops around a magne Is equal to the applied magnetomotive force Fm = Fm1 + Fm2 + Fm3 +…...

Parallel magnetic circuits a b c f e d N Rab Rfa φT + Fm φ1 φ2 Rbc Rbe Ref Rde Rcd .

Air Gaps and their effects In many applications. This spreading out is called Fringing . they spread out because the ndividual lines repel each other. magnetic flux must cross one or more air gaps he magnetic lines of force cross the air gap.

the following is assumed: Neglect the fringing effect in the air gap region The magnetic flux density is uniform within the magnetic material Magnetic flux is restricted to flow within the magnetic material with no leakage .φ Fm Rm Rg n the analysis of magnetic circuits.

Machines’ Losses 1) Copper Losses: In the windings (PCu Losses = I2R) 2) Mechanical Losses: arise owing to the rotation of rotating parts (fr 3) Magnetic Losses: (a) Eddy Current losses (b) Hysteresis Losses .

just like any other electrical currents. This process is called lamination. shows the eddy currents induced in an armature core that is a solid piece of soft iron. are affected by the resistance of the material in which the currents flow The resistance of any material is inversely proportional to its crosssectional area A B View A. View B. this will produce eddy currents in the magnetic circuits of different machines Eddy currents. shows a soft iron core of the same size. but made up of several small pieces insulated from each other. The currents in each piece of the laminated core are considerably less than in the solid core because the resistance of the pieces is much higher. .Eddy Currents’ Losses An alternating magnetic field linking a closed conductor system will induce a voltage in the conductor system.

thus Increasing its resistance leading to smaller eddy current values 2 and the heat loss I R is reduced K : constant Peddy loss = KeF2δ2B2m e δ: Laminations thickness (m Bm : Flux density (T) F : Frequency (Hz) .Lamination of iron core decreases the cross-sectional area of each piece.

this irreversibility is called Hysteresis (B lags H) when H is reduced to zero. B will not decrease as rapid as it increased (the B-H curve will not retrace itself).Hysteresis Loop magnetic material is said to be fully saturated when its permeability becomes almost the same as that of free space (H is so high) “H” is lowered by decreasing the current in the coil. residual flux density B r will appear meaning th the magnetic material has been magnetized .

Hysteresis Curve Residual flux density: ±Br High Br: hard magnetic mate Low Br : Soft magnetic mater .

It must be driven back zero by a fieldmagnetic in the opposite Iftoan alternating field is applied todirection the material. it will not relax back to zero magnetization when the imposed magnetizing field is removed. The lack of retraceability of the Once the magnetic domains magnetization curve is the are reoriented. its magnetization will trace out a loop called a hysteresis loop. it takes property called hysteresis and it some energy to turn them is related to the existence of  back again magnetic domains in the material The area enclosed by the hysteresis loop represents the power loss involved in overcoming theK retained magnetic field : constant PHys loss = KH F Bnm H n: Steinmetz constant (1.25 Bm : Flux density (T) F : Frequency (Hz) .Hysteresis Losses When a ferromagnetic material is magnetized in one direction.

25-2.5 δ: Laminations thickness (m) .Pcore = Peddy + PHyst =KeF2δ2B2m+ KH F Bnm KH : constant Ke : constant Bm : Flux density (T) F : Frequency (Hz) n: Steinmetz constant (1.

H = 250 AT/m.14×0.314/1000) = 0. then I = H×l/N l = π d = 3.0785 A μ = μ0 μr = B/H = 0. then μr = 0.0008/4π×10-7 = 637 .2/250 = 0.1 = 0.314 m From cast steel B-H curve.0008. at B = 0.2 Tesla.2 wb/m2 is to be produced in a toroid of cast steel. the mean diameter of the toroid is 10 cm.Example (1) A magnetic flux density of 0. then: I = (250×0. Calculate the required current and the relative permeability of cast steel if a coil of 1000 turns is wound around the toroid Solution Fm = H×l = N×I.

5 wb/m2 is to be produced in a toroid of cast steel.5 Tesla H = 4000 AT/m. the mean diameter of the toroid is 10 cm. then I = H×l/N l = π d = 3.26 A μ = μ0 μr = B/H = 1.314 m μr is not constant From cast steel B-H curve.314/1000) = 1.006/4π×10-7 = for one type of material .1 = 0.5/4000 = 0.(2) Example A magnetic flux density of 1.14×0. at B = 1. then I = (4000×0.006. Calculate the required current and the relative permeability of cast steel if a coil of 1000 turns is wound around the toroid Solution Fm = H×l = N×I. then μr = 0.

4× B = 285. then φ = 1500×4/21.12×10-2/4π×10-7×100×4×10-4 = 1.12 cm Fm Then lm =69.894×106 AT/wb Rtotal = Rm+Rg = 21. if the current in the coil is 4A and the relative Permeability of the magnetic material is 1200. and φ = NI/Rtotal where Rtotal = Rm+ Rg φ Rm = lm/μ Am and Rg = lg / μ0Ag l = lmean = 2πrmean = 2π (12+10)/2 = 69.023×106 = 285.023×106 AT/wb.(3) Example An electromagnet of square cross-section similar to the one shown in figure has a tight wound coil of 1500 turns.12-1 = 68. Determine the flux density in the Solution magnetic circuit N=1500 1 cm B = φ/A. The inner and outer diameter are 10 and 12 cm respectively.12 cm.129×106 AT/wb Rg = 1×10-2/4π×10-7×4×10-4 = 19. Am = Ag =2×2= 4 cm2 Rm Rg Rm = 68.4×10-6/ 4×10-4 = 0.714 Tesla . the length of air gap is 1 cm.