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SEATWORK!

Give us your truthful, honest,

unvarnished opinion of Philippine news


media
What do you think is the role of the
news media?
If someone gives an interview or holds
a press conference, is the media
obliged to report only the angle that
the interviewer wants to highlight?

SEATWORK PA RIN!
Who do you think makes the ultimate

decision on what stories get


covered?
Who decides what stories go to print
or get aired?
Who should you go for? Broadcast,
print, or online?
Would you give gas money to
reporters and cameramen?

The PERCEPTIONS
Media is melodrama
Media is driven by ratings and

commercialism
Media only listens to the powerful and
the personalities
Media is corrupt
Media asks the most stupid of questions
Media likes bad news, and only bad
news

The REALITY
Partly true
But also partly untrue
In part, there is a great

misconception on the role of media


Who is at fault?
Media
Source
Viewer

The BASICS
Journalism is the activity of

gathering, assessing, creating, and


presenting news and information.
American press institute

The BASICS
A journalist is someone employed to

regularly engage in gathering,


processing, and disseminating
(activities) news and information
(output) to serve the public interest
(social role).
Study by University of Dayton assistant

professor Jonathan Peters and Edson C.


Tandoc Jr., of the Missouri School of
Journalism

News is what someone

wants suppressed.
Everything else is
advertising. The power is
to set the agenda. What we
print and what we dont
print matter a lot.
Katharine Graham

Journalism can never be

silent: That is its greatest


virtue and its greatest
fault. It must speak, and
speak immediately, while the
echoes of wonder, the claims
of triumph and the signs of
horror are still in the
air.
Henry Anatole Grunwald

Journalism will kill

you, but it will keep


you alive while youre
at it.
Horace Greeley

I fear three newspapers


more than a hundred
thousand bayonets
Napoleon

If I had my choice, I

would kill every reporter


in the world, but I am
sure we would be getting
reports from hell before
breakfast
Gen.
William Tecumseh Sherman

If one morning I walked


on top of the water
across the Potomac
river, the headline that
afternoon would read:
President cant swim
Lyndon B. Johnson

I became a journalist

because I did not want


to rely on newspapers
for information.
Christopher Hitchens

By giving us the

opinions of the
uneducated, journalism
keeps us in touch with
the ignorance of the
community.
Oscar Wilde

A good newspaper, I
suppose, is a nation
talking to itself
Arthur Miller

What media is not.


Contrary to what most people think,

journalists do not just report what they


see or hear
They ask, listen, and observe
Then they use editorial judgment to

determine what is relevant and


newsworthy, and then rush this
information on air or into print

Journalism is not stenography!

Understanding the
relationship between
journalists and their
sources necessitates an
understanding:
medias role
medias goal
medias processes and effects

ROLES AND GOALS


independent and responsible media is a

necessity in any democracy


media acts as the middleman
leaders and the led
actors and the viewers/readers
for the voiceless, the unheard, the

underrepresented
bridge between what happens, and what
happens next
Enlighten, educate
The fiscalizer, activist

ROLES AND GOALS


media is not a platform; the medium

(print, broadcast, online) is the


platform
media is not the mouthpiece; it is
independent, part of a social contract
support and patronage in exchange for a

job well done

ROLES AND GOALS


medias job is not to report on what

you have said or done, e.g. press


conferences, photo opportunities,
events, etc
that is the job of your PR person
otherwise, the person who holds the

most events and talks the most should


get the lions share of coverages
media is not stenography

ROLES AND GOALS


media exercises editorial judgement

to
determine what stories/issues/events are

to be covered
of these events, what particular data
should go on top
news angling or news peg
how to present that data or angle in a
manner that would interest the public

A word on news angles


and news pegs
angling is the determination of what

could be the most


important/significant peg of a story
or event
different from sensationalizing.
Sensationalizing is making a story
appear to be bigger than it really is

A word on news angles


and news pegs
the angle you want is not necessarily

what interests the journalist


complaints of context,
sensationalism, etc

THE ROLE OF MEDIA


to exercise sound, independent, and

responsible editorial judgement in


order to inform and enlighten the
public on critical issues that are
important for them to make an
informed decision or action
key is sound, independent, editorial
judgement

Medias job is to
make the important interesting
not all important issues are interesting

to the general public


e.g. taxes, peace talks, political debates,
etc

and the interesting relevant


is there more to an interesting event or

an oddity that we can learn from?


For example, stories on crime, abnormal
behaviour, etc

BREAKING IT DOWN
Print
Broadcast
Radio and tv

Online
Online news
Social media

PRINT IN PH
580 newspapers
49 magazines
16 other news publications
Printing 2 million copies
Majority of readers are males above

30
Big papers Inquirer, Star, Bulletin

TV

in PH

352 TV stations/12 in MM
782 CATV stations
Government runs NBN4 and RnB

Radio in PH
49 stations in MM
In countryside, 392 AM 782 FM
Big Four:
DZRH
DZXL
DZMM
AKSYON

ONLINE PH
304 registered ISPs
4.3M landline subscribers
83.2M cellphone subscribers
33.8M internet users
9.5M twitter users

(10th in world)
29.8 FB users

Bear in mind
Each medium has its own strengths

and weaknesses
Some of them overlap, but not all

However
Journalism hews to its basics,

regardless of the medium


Accuracy
Fairness and balance
Timeliness
Relevance

Nagkakaiba sa
Production values
Elements and needs

Deadlines
Commercial issues

The traditional
journalism formula
5Ws
1H
Who
What
When
Where
Why
how

THE NEWS AND THE


NEWSROOM
frontline journalists
deskmen
editors
owners/publishers

JOURNALISTS
are tasked with sourcing data
gathering interviews
witnessing events
interacting with sources
the data they collect is the baseline

for stories published

JOURNALISTS
the media sector most people are

familiar with
not all journalists are frontline
journalists
ground pounders
news readers
commentators and columnists

NEWS DESk
Map out coverage of the day
Normally plans the night before
Deploys reporters
Receives advisories
Advises reporters on coverage and

story angling

EDITORS
the gatekeepers
decide which journalists cover which

beats
decide on a general coverage schedule
ultimately, decide which stories are
used or pursued
decide how to treat a story
that is why they are called the gatekeepers

OWNERS/PUBLISHERS
own the infrastructure
employ the journalists
determine overall policies of media

agencies
is it independent, or beholden etc

determine priorities vis--vis

commercial vs editorial decisions

Journalists, editors,
publishers
they all have interests
personal
political
cultural/tribal
religious
financial

What matters is how you subsume

the interests to the main role

THE NEWS ROOM PROCESS


at the end of a day, editors and

deskmen decide on a coverage plan


for the next day
plan is transmitted to the journalist
journalist proceeds with the coverage
plan
leeway given for flexibility and adaptation
ideally, journalist can coordinate with a

senior editor (city editor or deskman

THE NEWSROOM PROCESS


before midday, story conferences,

story directions
midafternoon story advisories by
reporters
late afternoon story conferences
editorial work

CHANGING MEDIA
earlier models, media relied merely on

official reports. What you get is simply what


the sitting politician wants you to hear
before the 19th century, newspapers
printed mostly official dispatches from the
frontline
by the end of the 19th century, media was
becoming more independent
advent of 21st century, new models are
changing the definition of media

What this means to YOU


Getting in means
Knowing who to interact with
Delivering a clear and compelling

message
Delivering the message in a timely
manner (deadlines!)
Being able to assist with production
requirements

For example:

Online media has the most space;


It also has the most distractions
The key:
Compelling stories
Firm and clear messages
Good messaging using online tools
Audio
Video
Graphics

For example
remember that online news has no

fixed deadline
24 hour news cycle
You can squeeze in most of the time;
its knowing how not to get thrown
into the trash bin because you
caught everyone at a bad time

For example
Know the best time to get in
Know the news cycle
Deadlines, ora de peligro
Choose your battles
Do you fight for space vs mainstream

news?
Do you opt for slow news days and
times?
Do you opt for current affairs?

Remember!
News now has a 24-hour cycle
But even then, there are so-called

primetimes
Newsrooms have a need; you can
either get in the way by being
clutter, or help them fill that need

Salamat po!

SESSION 2
Working with MEDIA

SEATWORK!
Have you ever had a negative

experience with the media?


Have you ever been asked for money
or gifts by the media?
Do you think it is normal to give
money or gifts to media?
Should you feed the media?

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
OF MEDIA ETHICS
Ideally, journalists do not accept

money or expensive gifts from


sources

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
OF MEDIA ETHICS
Ideally, journalists cover stories

because of their relevance or news


value
Not for personal reasons
Not for financial reasons

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
OF MEDIA ETHICS
Ideally, journalists write stories

because of their relevance or news


value
Not for personal reasons
Not for financial reasons

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
OF MEDIA ETHICS
Friendships are allowed, of course!
But journos must be careful not to cross

the line
News judgment is impaired
Biases become apparent
Perceived and real

DURING COVERAGE
Should you pay for hotel rooms,

plane fares, food, allowances, etc?

IDEALLY:
Journalists pay their way through any

coverage
This includes hotels, plane fares,
food, etc
Realistically, some smaller news
organizations have difficulty funding
coverages
Do you pay for them?
Grey area?

DURING PRESSERS
Should you feed reporters and

photogs?
Do you give them gasoline money
and merienda money too?

WHAT ABOUT GIFTS?

WHAT DO YOU EXPECT IN


RETURN?
Should reporters carry your

peg/angle/line?
Should you feel bad if they have
their own peg?
Would you threaten, cajole, harass,
intimidate reporters who do not carry
your peg?

Other news protocols


Off the record
Deep background
No attribution
On the record

Salamat po!

SESSION 3:
FRAMING YOUR MESSAGE

Workshop from Morning


session

Marshall Mcluhan said:


The medium is the message
The message is never independent of

the medium used to deliver it


The medium affects, not just the delivery
of the message, but the way it is
received and perceived
In many ways, the medium has already
become the message. Content has been
trumped by production values, etc

THE ELEMENTS OF A
MESSAGE
Issue
value
Target
Call
vision

THE ELEMENTS OF A
MESSAGE
MA
PA
WEH

THE ELEMENTS OF A
MESSAGE

MALAY KO
PAKIALAM KO
WEH ANO NGAYON DUN

MESSAGING
Malay ko?
the most important part of the message:

the content!
Something the viewer does not know, or
misunderstands
E.g. BBL, BDA, BDP, etc

MESSAGING
Pakialam ko?
Why should I care about it?
Involving the viewer, making him relate

to the issue, making it his issue!


What does it mean to me?
News you can use
Making the message compelling
E.g. resolving conflict, imrpoving lives,
more job opportunities, safety and
security, etc

MESSAGING
Weh ano ngayon dun?
So what can I do about it?
What should I do about it?
The action portion of the message
Yes, you should do something, because

you are the one who can do something


Empowering
E,g, spread the word, join the campaign,
press your congressman, or simply, go
out and vote

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Messages are best conveyed in short

brief bursts of ideas


Not in long convoluted sentences or
speeches

TIPS ON MESSAGING
The message must FIRST OF ALL be

clear to the messenger


Surprisingly, it seldom is, even in
newsrooms

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Brief bursts of ideas because
This is ideal for broadcast
This is also ideal for
Reporters with short attention spans
Viewers with short attention spans

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Do targetting!
Are your targets the academe? The NGO

community? Multilaterals? Opinion


makers? Or the public?
Frame appropriately
Your message
Your language
Your medium

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Remember the media formula
Radio is medium of greatest reach
Television is medium of greatest

impact
Print is medium of reference

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Do you go for news, or public affairs?
Strengths and weaknesses

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Unfortunately, perceptions are just

as powerful as reality
So be careful with being
misinterpreted
E.g. Iqbal and the criminals who
took the video

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Sumakay sa mga isyu!
You do not have to be lone rangers

TIPS ON MESSAGING
The best message-makers are the

best storytellers
Tell stories the way you would want
to hear them
Make the stories compelling
Assist by giving data, contacts, case

studies etc

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Make it personal
Make it something people can relate

to

TIPS ON MESSAGING
Your statements and manifestos are fine
But media needs
Data
Leads
Angles
Material

People need
To be informed
Enlightened
inspired

Remember
It is not what you want to say
It is what they would want to listen to

Remember
It is not how you should say it
It is how they would want to hear it

Remember
It is not what you say
It is what they understand

It is not about you.


It is about them.

Suriving the Interview

POSSIBLE MESSAGES
Kami lang ang rebeldeng grupo na

gumawa ng blueprint for


development
Kami lang ang grupo na hindi lang
gyera ng gyera, plano rin ng plano
Tapos na ang gyera sa bundok, gyera
naman ng tyan
BDP, di lang para sa milf o muslim

TIPS FOR INTERVIEWS


Confident not arrogant
Be personable, not familiar
Speak in the language you are

comfortable with
Look the interviewer in the eye/ eye
contact