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Branches of

Microbiology

Branches of Microbiology
i) Bacteriology
ii) Virology
iii) Immunology
iv) Paracytology
v) Mycology
Study of bacteria is known as Microbiology

Structure of Bacteria
Essential Structure :
From inside to outside
i) Nucleus
ii) Cytoplasm
iii) Cytoplasmic membrane
iv) Cell wall

Non essential Structures / Accessory


structures are :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Fimbria / Pilus. ( Pili-Plural)


Flagella
Spore
Capsule

Draw & Label a typical bacteria

Cell Wall
Peptidoglycan : The strength of cell wall
Is chiefly provided by peptidogycan.
composed of repeating units of N-acityl
muramic acid and N-acityl glucosamine
with tetrapeptide side chain

Gram Positive Wall


Peptidoglycan of gram positive bacteria is
much thicker (multi layered).Teichoic acid
and Teichoronic acids water are soluble
polymers.
Other complex polysaccharide.

Gram Negative Wall


Peptidoglycan (1-2 layers)
Lipoprotein : It connect the other
membrane to peptidoglycan

Outer Membrane Protein (OMP)


It is a phospholipid bi-layer & contains
specific protein.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) consist of a
complex lipid called lipid A and
polysaccharide.
.

Lipid-A : Toxic portion


Polysaccharide portion : Surface antigent
LPS is the endotoxin of the gram negative
bacteria. The toxicity is associated with
lipid and polysaccharide portion
represents surface antigen.

Function
1. It prevents osmotic lysis of bacterial cell.
2. It gives shape of the cell.
3. It is associated with its own biosynthesis.
4. It is antigenic in nature.
5. It helps in cell division.

Spheroplasts :
Derived from gram negative bacteria and retains the
remnants of the other membrane.
Protoplasts :
Derived from gram positive bacteria that completely
lack cell wall.
Both one produced by under the influence of cell wall
inhibitors and one osmotically fragile Hypertonic
condition is necessary for their maintenance.
L-form :
Cell wall deficient forms of bacteria develops either
spontaneously or under the influence of cell wall
inhibitors.
May revert back to its normal form.

Cytoplasmic Membrane

It is thin, elastic, semi-permeable layer lies


beneath the cell wall. Electron microscope
shows three layers forming a Unit
membrane. The central layer is made of
protein molecule and on its either side
there are lipid molecules.

Function :
Selective permeability and transport of
solutes.
Electron transport and oxidative
phosphorylation.
Excretion of hydrolytic enzyme.
Possess the enzymes and carrier
molecules.
Synthesis of structural components.

Mesosome
Convoluted, multi-laminated, membranous sac like
structure formed by invaginations of cytoplasmic
membrane. These serve as source of respiratory
enzyme.
Types of Mesosomes :
Septal mesosome
Latera; mesosome
The septal mesosome is attached to bacterial
chromosome and is involved in DNA segregation
and the formation of cross-wall during cell division.

Capsule :
It is an outer well - defined covering of
thick condensed, jelly like materials that
surrounds the bacterial cell wall.
It is composed of polysaccharide or
polypeptide.

Function :
i) It prevent phagocytes
ii) It enhances bacterial virulence, certain bacteria are
pathogenic only in capsulated state.
iii) It is antigenic in nature
iv) Specific identification of bacteria can be made by
using antiserum against the capsular
polysaccharide
All caps are polysaccharide except bacillus.
They are polypeptide
Capsulated bacteria:
Pneumococus
Klebsiella pneumonia
Bacillus anthrcis (polypeptide)

Glycocalyx

Extracellular polymer forming loose


meshwork of fibrils. When these polymers
appear to be totally detached from the cell
in which other cells may be entrapped, it is
called slime layer.

Flagella

These are filamentous appendages


composed of protein protruding
through the cell wall.
These are organs of locomotion.
Gives antigenesity of bacterial cell

Types :
i) Monotrichous Single polar flagellum,
eg.- vibrio cholerae.
ii) Amphitrichous Single flagellum attached
to each end eg. pseudomonas
iii) Lophotrichous Tufts of flagella at one
end eg. Spirillum minus.
iv) Peritrichous Numerous flagella all over
the bacterial body. eg. salmonella typhi

Each flagellum consists of three distinct parts:


Basal body
Hook
Filament
The filament lies external to the cell and the
hook. Basal body is embedded in the cell
envelope. The basal body is attached to the
cytoplasmic membrane by ring like structure.
Flagella are antigenic in nature. So, useful in
immunological diagnosis of infections.

Fimbria
These are thin, short, straight appendages,
extruding from the cytoplasmic mambrane.
These are found in some gram negative
bacteria and are always arranged
peritrichously.
More numerous than flagella.
These are antigenic and associated with
virulence.
Types :
Common (Ordinary) pili
Sex pili

Function :
i) Adhesion: Pili are organs of adhesion.
ii) Sex pili : These are specialized, longer and
responsible for transfer of genetic factor in
bacterial conjugation.
Adhesion is the pre requisite for infection.
Y

R-factor

Resistant

Sensitive
Sex pilus

Resistant

Bacterial Spores
Spores are highly resistant, dormant stage
of bacteria formed in adverse
environmental conditions such as
starvation and desiccation.
Spores :
Endospore
Exospore

Structures of Spore:
Core
Spore cell
Cortex
Coat
Exosporium

Bacterial spore are always endospore.


Fungus spore are exospore.
Germination

Spore

Sporulation

Vegetative form

Spore forming bacteria :


Aerobic : Bacillus
Anaerobic : Clostriidia

Core: Consist of the chromosome, a high


concentration of calcium ions and dipicolinic
acid.
Mner membrane : Comprises the cytoplasmic
membrane of the cell.
Cortex : Consists of loosely cross linked
peptidoglycan
Coat : Protein similar to keratin with highly cross
linked, disulfide bonds forms a major barrier to
chemicals.
Exosporium: Lipo protein membrane.

Shape & Position of Spore :


It may be oval or spherical spore may be central,
subterminal and terminal in position.
Resistance: Bacterial spores are highly resistant
to ordinary boiling, heating and disinfectants.
Heat resistance of sporea are due to
Relative impermeability of spore coat
Low water content, low metabolic activity.
High concentration of calcium dipicolinic.
Low enzyme activity.

Germination :
The process of conversion of a spore into a
vegetative form. It consist of three stages
a) Activation by agents which damage the coat
such as heat, low pH, abrasion.
b) Initiation
c) Outgrowth

Spore forming bacteria cause severe infection

Plasmid
Plasmid
Are extra chromosomal double stranded circular
DNA molecules that are capable of replicating
independently of the bacterial chromosome
Plasmids carry the genes for following function
1. Drug resistance by R factors
2. Exotoxin including several enterotoxin
3. Metabolic activity.
4. Transfer of genetic material by sex pilli.

Transposons

Transposons are pieces of DNA that moves


from one site to another , within or between
the DNAs of bacteria, plasmid, and
bacteriophage.
The can code for drug resistance
enzymes,toxin etc.